3. Project Partners

3.1. The MNR
The Ministry put in place a project management team consisting of the following persons: a very experienced manager brought in 1990 to the cadastre direction, a pilot manager who later became the project manager and, a few years later a system administrator in charge of quality control. A fourth person responsible for monitoring the 1985 cadastre reengineering program also joined the team.

Immediately after starting, the director redefined the technological and organizational dimensions of the cadastre reengineering program, and created a business plan for the project (see figure below). The solutions were then presented to the General Office of Budget.

Business Model

However, in order to meet the objectives of the program, the Ministry had to acquire an IT infrastructure, train the staff, and ensure transfer of expertise while running its current operations. As MNR did not have the internal resources to do that, the solution chosen for launching the program was to hire a provider in charge of the whole enterprise.

The direction at MNR had enormous pressure since it was dealing with the "relaunching" of the program. The director was known to be "very rigorous," and she demanded that costs, schedule, and quality be strictly respected which became the leitmotif for all the participants in the project. Internally, everything had to be planned, structured, and well organized. The managers were liable; self-financing of the activities had to be maintained, and a SME-styled management was put in place. The success of the integration contract was closely tied to the implementation of the business plan that was result-oriented.

3.2 DMR
DMR developed an interest in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) as early as 1982. Invited to help the government develop a vision on localization data, DMR remarked that no technology to support this type of data existed and decided to invest in research in this domain. DMR was known to the MNR for its involvement in strategic planning in the field of lands; therefore before getting the big contract in 1992, DMR was awarded two contracts (1985-86 and 1989) by the Cadastral direction for preliminary studies.

DMR saw in this contract an opportunity to position itself on the market by introducing the client-server concept and the combination of spatial and database technology. However, DMR also took huge technological and financial risks with this contract for which the technological solutions did not exist on the market and which at this time represented a big portion of its business revenues.

DMR went through a dark period. IT integration and operation development problems combined with financial problems put the implementation of the contract in question. The company also experienced difficulties regarding the schedule as failure to deliver on time implied penalties. The company, that invested so much in this project, could not back out despite the lack of financial incentive (the contract clauses established that the payment would be made only upon delivery). At the same time, DMR was experiencing a major corporate crisis. Internal pressures and financial problems led to DMR being bought by Amdhal in 1995.

Despite the difficulties, the company developed strategic expertise in the field. There was a strategic advantage to be gained in the markets. Cadastral management includes the management of a cadastral plan and the territory it covers, as well as the management of real property. Such management then became a taxation instrument and a potentially interesting market product. The cadastral reengineering contract introduced a window of opportunity for other contracts for DMR, which eventually did happen.

3.3. Other Stakeholders
Three groups expressed an interest in the project and were consulted, although they were little involved in the project: (1) the Ministry of Justice, the main customer of MNR because it is the main user of the cadastral maps, (2) municipalities; (3) surveyors, represented by their professional association and by the surveyors' offices that would implement the cadastre reengineering in the field. From the beginning, MNR included surveyors in its project team. These surveyors were "lent to the Ministry" for the duration of the project; they acted as pilots to define the systems functionality and then tested them.

© 2003 Center for Technology in Government