1.3. Institutional and Legal Context
Several events have had an impact on the definition and implementation of the program. Here is a brief summary:
- The program was launched with the passage of the Law for Quebec Cadastre Reform in 1985. A preliminary analysis, done in 1986 by the company DMR, revealed two major technological difficulties related to the archiving and dissemination of the information. The project was suspended in 1988 due to technological as well as financial considerations. The cost was higher than predicted. In addition, the structure of the Ministry was not adequate for the management of such a project, and the 1985 Law did not apply to nonconventional real estate property uses.7
- In 1989, the program bases were changed and the involvement of DMR increased with the allocation of a second contract to the company, which would cover organizational aspects of the project. A new team at the direction of the cadastre allowed a redefinition of the cadastre reengeneering program. They adopted a new organizational structure and proceeded to do a preliminary analysis of the management system of cadastral data. At the same time, they initiated the process which would lead to necessary legislative modifications to correct some lacunae of the initial program launched in 1985.
- The passage of the Law Modifying the Law for Quebec Cadastre Reform in 1992 and the implementation of the new Quebec Civil Code (Common Law) (1991) on January 1, 1994, substantially modified cadastre practices and ownership records. In addition, increased use of Information Technology (IT) in organizations and the development of GIS opened new perspectives for processing cadastral information.
- On July 6,1992, the cadastre direction issued a Request for Proposals (RFP) for a "Contract of Integration of Goods and Services for the Implementation and Management of the Cadastre Reengineering Information Systems." They were looking for a provider who would take responsibility for the implementation of the integration and its results. In December 1992, the company DMR was awarded the contract in the amount of C$ 27.2 million. "It is the first time that the Quebec government chooses an integration project that delegates the implementation of GIS development for cadastre reengineering to a private company."8
- In January 1993, the Ministry of Natural Resources (MNR) restarted the cadastre reengineering program now reevaluated at C$ 500 million and spanning a period of 13 years, from 1993 to 2006. In addition to the integration project allocated to DMR, the program allocated more than 1,500 contracts to surveyors, to remodel about 4 million plots.
In the framework of this program, MNR must acquire information systems adapted to the management of cadastral data and their graphical representation (GIS), take care of the remodeling contracts, and ensure self-financing of its operations via the establishment of a fund. The cadastre reengineering funds are generated by the sale of cadastre data and maps, as well by a fee imposed on all real estate transactions made in the offices of real estate property services. (85% of total costs).
7 Grondin, p.40.
8 Garon, "Cadastre Reform: Impossible without GIS," Les Affaires, October 9, 1993, p. 34.