From our research, it appears that G2G services rarely are the initial objective of e-government. Most often G2G applications follow after efforts aimed at satisfying a need for citizens or businesses. One benefit of being a part of a later phase is that G2G applications can rest on existing infrastructures and therefore do not bear this initial cost burden. We also saw instances where connecting G2G information or transactions occurs solely to achieve a G2C or G2B outcome.
When we did find G2G initiatives under development, we discovered little attention to an enterprise approach. More specifically, there were limited standards in use, issues with identity management and single sign-on, no clear cost structure, and limited or no joint governance structure. The initiatives were linking G2G business, but not doing so with a holistic view.
Finally, we found that the ongoing support and training required for G2G applications is greater and usually requires more resources than initially anticipated. We found, not surprisingly, that the most common and important characteristics of successful G2G efforts include a combination of leadership, credibility, collaboration, and participant buy-in.
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