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Related Publications
The SmartCities project is embedded within a larger set of investigations by the North American Digital Government Working Group (NADGWG), which was formed in 2007. The following related publications resulted from the North American Digitial Government Working Group.

Issue Briefs (3)
The ‘Internet of Things,’ (IoT) is all around us, every day and everywhere. The uses across industries and sectors are seemingly endless and increasingly, local governments are taking notice and beginning to explore how they too might benefit. The big question local governments need to be asking themselves, is “are we prepared to steward the public’s data in the context of IoT?” While there are some exceptions, we suspect that in many cases, the answer to that question is “no.” Technology has evolved faster than the organizations trying to use them, and public policies lag farther still behind organizational change. All governments considering the IoT, in particular local governments who are already struggling with data stewardship responsibilities, should carefully consider three issues.

Six Lessons for Mayors
February 2015
Mayors, governors and other local government leaders are being inundated by all sorts of “experts” telling them how to make cities smarter. Becoming a critical consumer of information and perspectives of these experts is time intensive and challenging. The messages are often heartfelt and relevant to the problem, often they are not, but motivated by well-hidden, and in some cases, not so well hidden, commercial interests.

Cities across the U.S. are joining in a global movement to improve the quality of their decision making and planning through increased access to data and by integrating collaborative approaches to making that data more accessible to government officials as well as the public. In many larger cities, 311 service centers are becoming a core driver to building capabilities for service integration. Since the first 311 hotline launched in 1996 in the City of Baltimore, 311 service centers have rapidly spread across the country. 311 systems are providing quick and easy access to non-emergency municipal services and information through a single, consolidated channel that extends from the three-digit toll-free dial number (3-1-1) to any possible means that people can use to communicate with their municipal government; email, text messaging, social media, and more recently smart phone applications.

Journal Articles and Conference Papers (7)
Journal Article Cover
Taewoo Nam and Theresa Pardo
Proceedings of the 46th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences - 2013, Wed, 09 Jan 2013, >Download PDF
A 311 system provides quick and easy access to non-emergency municipal services and information through a consolidated channel. This study explores the operation of 311 contact centers in New York and Philadelphia and identifies critical success factors and challenges of 311-driven service integration. Analyzing the qualitative data from semi-structured interviews with 311 center staff and city government officials, the study presents some key findings. Having the right technology in the right time is identified as a critical technological factor. While the lack of interoperability between a 311 system and departmental legacy systems remains a major technical barrier to connecting a variety of systems, human agents fill the middle ground so that training for qualified agents is crucial for their role. Inter-agency coordination and collaboration is pivotal to creating and updating service level agreements and knowledgebase. However, turf protection raises cross-organizational concerns. The mayor’s strong leadership, political champions, and the executive support help resolve interdepartmental conflicts.

Taewoo Nam and Theresa Pardo
6th International Conference on Theory and Practice of Electronic Governance (ICEGOV2012) , Mon, 22 Oct 2012, >Download PDF
This paper describes the transformation of a city government led by a 311 program, which provides a consolidated channel for non-emergency services and information. The paper first discusses the concept of “smart city” as a foundation for the examination of the 311 program as a practice of government innovation. The paper then presents the details of the 311 program as it is being instantiated in the City of Philadelphia. In-depth interviews with city government officials and managers responsible for operating the city’s 311 system (Philly311) offer insights into the contributions the system is making to a more efficient, effective, transparent, accountable, and collaborative city government. Performance data provided by Philly311 enables more efficient resource allocation and informed decision making. Philly311 is credited with making the process of service delivery more transparent to the public, and providing traceability of requested services imbues service departments with a sense of accountability. Service level agreements are providing measurable standards of municipal services and are used to support accountability in terms of service status. Regular reviews of service level agreements and content of the system promote interdepartmental collaboration. 311 systems are broadly recognized as powerful tools to engage residents in improving their neighborhoods. Interviews also revealed challenges Philly311 is facing including limited funding impeding further improvements in software, systems, and staffing, and provided some insights into innovative strategies for addressing resource constraints. Institutionalizing interdepartmental collaborations also emerged from the interviews as a critical new capability required for advancing from the initiation stage of Philly311 to the operational, expansive, and sustainable stages.

[Winner of Best Innovations in Practice Paper Award, ICEGOV2012]

Hafedh Chourabi, Taewoo Nam, Shawn Walker, J. Ramon Gil-Garcia, Sehl Mellouli, Karine Nahon, Theresa Pardo, and Hans Jochen Scholl
Proceedings of the 45th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences - 2012, Thu, 05 Jan 2012, >Download PDF
Making a city “smart” is emerging as a strategy to mitigate the problems generated by the urban population growth and rapid urbanization. Yet little academic research has sparingly discussed the phenomenon. To close the gap in the literature about smart cities and in response to the increasing use of the concept, this paper proposes a framework to understand the concept of smart cities. Based on the exploration of a wide and extensive array of literature from various disciplinary areas we identify eight critical factors of smart city initiatives: management and organization, technology, governance, policy context, people and communities, economy, built infrastructure, and natural environment. These factors form the basis of an integrative framework that can be used to examine how local governments are envisioning smart city initiatives. The framework suggests directions and agendas for smart city research and outlines practical implications for government professionals.

Taewoo Nam and Theresa Pardo
5th International Conference on Theory and Practice of Electronic Governance (ICEGOV2011) , Mon, 26 Sep 2011, >Download PDF
This paper sees a smart city not as a status of how smart a city is but as a city’s effort to make itself smart. The connotation of a smart city represents city innovation in management and policy as well as technology. Since the unique context of each city shapes the technological, organizational and policy aspects of that city, a smart city can be considered a contextualized interplay among technological innovation, managerial and organizational innovation, and policy innovation. However, only little research discusses innovation in management and policy while the literature of technology innovation is abundant. This paper aims to fill the research gap by building a comprehensive framework to view the smart city movement as innovation comprised of technology, management and policy. We also discuss inevitable risks from innovation, strategies to innovate while avoiding risks, and contexts underlying innovation and risks.

Taewoo Nam and Theresa Pardo
Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research (dg.o 2011), Sun, 12 Jun 2011, >Download PDF
This conceptual paper discusses how we can consider a particular city as a smart one, drawing on recent practices to make cities smart. A set of the common multidimensional components underlying the smart city concept and the core factors for a successful smart city initiative is identified by exploring current working definitions of smart city and a diversity of various conceptual relatives similar to smart city. The paper offers strategic principles aligning to the three main dimensions (technology, people, and institutions) of smart city: integration of infrastructures and technology-mediated services, social learning for strengthening human infrastructure, and governance for institutional improvement and citizen engagement.

Celene Navarrete A., Sehl Mellouli, Theresa A. Pardo, and J. Ramon Gil-Garcia
Proceedings of the 42nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences - 2009, Sun, 15 Feb 2009, >Download PDF
Theresa A. Pardo, J. Ramon Gil-Garcia, and Luis F. Luna-Reyes
Paper prepared for presentation at the Minnowbrook III Conference, Lake Placid, New York, September 5-7, 2008, Thu, 05 Sep 2008, >Download PDF