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Issue Briefs (1)
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Information is one of the most valuable resources of government. Government managers, however, are finding that the information needed to plan, make decisions, and act is often held outside their own organizations, collected for widely different purposes, and maintained in disparate formats. As a consequence, governments around the world are increasingly turning to information sharing as a strategy for maximizing the value of information in providing services and responding to problems. New practices are emerging at all levels; from town governments creating performance-based management capability by sharing information between departments such as police and highway, to state-level efforts to coordinate public safety practices, to national efforts responding to public health crises.

Reports (1)
Factors Influencing Government Cross-Boundary Information Sharing book cover
This report summarizes the results of a national survey of cross-boundary information sharing in the public sector conducted by the Center for Technology in Government (CTG). This national study, conducted by CTG and supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation, was designed to understand how effective information integration and sharing occurs within and across boundaries of organizations. The purpose of the survey was to test the generalizability of a preliminary theoretical model of how policy, organizational, social, and technical factors interact to create criminal justice and public health information sharing capabilities. CTG developed this model based on the data collected and analyzed during earlier phases of the research project.

Journal Articles and Conference Papers (15)
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Pardo, T.A., Burke, G.B., Gil-Garica, J. R., and Guler, A.
Proceedings of 5th International Conference on e-Government, Wed, 21 Oct 2009, pp.148-155 >Download PDF
Research has shown that clarity of roles and responsibilities (CRR) influences the effectiveness and performance of individual organizations as well as cross-boundary or interorganizational group efforts. Role clarity increases job satisfaction, commitment, and involvement and reduces tension and anxiety among organizational members, which results in lower staff turnover rates in organizations. In addition, CRR has been found to enable other important determinants of success in cross-boundary information sharing (CBI), such as building trust among members of CBI initiatives. However, few studies attempt to understand the determinants of CRR in a CBI initiative. Using data from semi-structured interviews from eight U.S. state and local government public health and criminal justice information sharing cases, this paper seeks to fill this gap by examining these determinants.

* Copyright The Authors, 2009. All Rights Reserved. No reproduction, copy or transmission may be made without written permission from the individual authors.
Pardo, T. A., Gil-Garcia, J. R., and Burke, G. B.
Proceedings of the Forty-First Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS 2008), Fri, 4 Jan 2008, p.211 >Download PDF
Governments are increasingly using collaborative, cross-boundary strategies to face complex social problems. Many of these cross-boundary initiatives have at their core the use, and in many cases, the sharing of information and communication technologies. In fact, government managers and researchers alike are now recognizing the value and great opportunities offered by cross-boundary information sharing, in particular. Current research has identified important factors that affect these cross-boundary information sharing initiatives Governance structures are among those factors found to be important in cross-boundary information sharing. However, there is little research about the determinants of an effective governance structure in these multi-organizational settings. Based on semistructured interviews with participants in four state and local government criminal justice initiatives, this paper systematically identifies the determinants of governance structures for cross-boundary information sharing initiatives. By doing so, this study contributes to theory, but also supports the development of more specific guidelines for public managers and other individuals involved in crossboundary information sharing.

Pardo, T. A., Gil-Garcia, J. R., and Burke, G. B.
Paper presented at the eChallenges e-2007 Conference, The Hague, Netherlands, Fri, 19 Oct 2007, >Download PDF
Sharing information across organizational boundaries in support of a governmental response to crises requires intergovernmental collaboration and information sharing. Examining these efforts provides an opportunity to explore questions about the role of various actors in such response efforts; in particular, informal leaders. This paper, based on a comparative case analysis of the response to West Nile virus (WNV) in two US states, New York and Colorado, extends what is known about leadership by providing new understanding about how informal leadership affects collaborative information sharing. The case analysis contributes to current knowledge about government leadership in complex networked environments such as a public health crisis. A set of propositions drawn from the analysis provides a preliminary model of the mechanisms through which informal leadership affects intergovernmental information sharing in crisis response. The findings also provide lessons about the role informal leaders play in cross-boundary information sharing and, consequently, in generating government capacity to respond to complex public problems as well as the foundation for a set of recommendations for practitioners.

Gil-Garcia, J. R., Pardo, T. A., and Burke, G. B.
Paper presented at “Leading the Future of the Public Sector” – The Third Transatlantic Dialogue, Newark, DE, Mon, 02 Jun 2007, >Download PDF
Government leaders at all levels are realizing that sharing information across organizational boundaries is essential to effectively respond to the most pressing public problems facing governments. A public health crisis, such as the outbreak of the West Nile virus in the United States, represents one of these pressing public problems. Sharing information across organizational boundaries in support of a governmental response required intergovernmental and multi-sectoral collaboration and information sharing. Examining these efforts provides an opportunity to explore questions about various actors in such response efforts; in particular, executives and informal leaders. This paper, based on a comparative case analysis of the response to West Nile virus (WNV) in two US states, New York and Colorado, extends what is known about leadership by providing new understanding about the mechanisms through which executive involvement, and formal authority, informal leadership affect multi-sector collaborative information sharing. The case analysis contributes to current knowledge about government leadership in complex, multi-sectoral network environments such as a public health crisis. A set of propositions drawn from the analysis provide a preliminary model of the mechanisms through which leadership variables affect intergovernmental and multi-sector information sharing in crisis response. The findings provide new insight for practitioners about the mechanisms through which executives and informal leaders influence cross-boundary information sharing and ultimately the capability of government organizations to respond to complex public problems.

Luna-Reyes, L. F., Andersen, D. F., Richardson, G. P., Pardo, T. A., and Cresswell, A. M.
Proceedings of the Eighth Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research: Bridging Disciplines & Domains (dg.o 2007), Fri, 25 May 2007, pp.47-56 >Download PDF
The purpose of this paper is to describe a dynamic theory of the socio-technical processes involved in the definition of an Integration Information problem in New York State (NYS). In April 2003, the Criminal Justice Information Technology (CJIT) group of NYS was tasked with developing a framework to give users of criminal justice data and information systems “one-stop shopping” access to information needed to accomplish their mission. CJIT collaborated with the Center for Technology in Government (CTG) for an eight-month period during 2003 to accomplish this task. The theory consists of a system dynamics model for understanding the dynamics of the collaboration involved in the problem definition stage of a project. The model was developed in facilitated group modeling sessions with the CTG team. The model is capable to generate interesting scenarios that show the importance of social accumulations in project management. Moreover, the model illustrates a powerful way to use modeling and simulation as theory-building tools.

Cooren, F., Thompson, F., Canestraro, D. S., and Bodor, T.
Human Relations, Volume 59, Number 4, Fri, 16 Mar 2007, pp 533–565 >Download PDF
In recent publications in organizational communication, the phenomenon of nonhuman agency has been highlighted as a key element whose recognition might allow researchers to better account for the nature and functioning of organizations. This approach consists of showing that the roles machines, tools, documents, architectural elements, and artifacts more generally play in collectives tend to be neglected in social sciences in general and organizational studies in particular, and that recognizing the active contribution of these elements might help us solve both theoretical and analytical problems.

Gil-Garcia, J. R. and Pardo, T. A.
International Journal on Computers, Systems and Signals, Volume 7, Number 2, Fri, 18 Oct 2006, pp. 3-17 >Download PDF
Electronic government is a complex phenomenon which involves technical, organizational, institutional and environmental aspects. Researchers from different disciplines are increasingly finding that using multiple methods can help to deal with complexity and obtain more comprehensive explanations. This paper argues that multi-method approaches can be useful for egovernment research. A set of advantages and challenges to multi-method approaches are introduced and then used to frame a case analysis. Two case studies involving multi-method approaches to e-government research are presented to illustrate strategies for responding to implementation challenges in both large-scale and small-scale projects. This case analysis contributes to the discussion about multi-method research designs and their role in digital government research. Insights into management strategies specifically designed to respond to the digital government context and the adoption of relevant methodologies drawn from the experiences of the authors are provided.

Pardo, T. A., Gil-Garcia, J. R., and Burke, G. B.
Paper presented at the eChallenges e-2006 Conference, Barcelona, Spain, Mon, 02 Oct 2006, >Download PDF
Governments around the world are increasingly turning to information sharing and integration to help solve problems in a wide range of programs and policy areas. These complex interorganizational efforts face not only the technical challenges of many information technology initiatives, but also the difficulties derived from interacting among multiple and diverse organizations. Trust has been identified as one the most important organizational factors for cross-boundary information sharing and integration. However, more research is needed regarding the determinants of trust building in this multi-organizational contexts. This paper highlights the relevant role of trust in cross-boundary information sharing initiatives and provides evidence about three of its most important determinants.

Gil-Garcia, J. R. and Pardo, T. A.
Proceedings of the Thirty-Ninth Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (CD/ROM), January 4-7,2006, Computer Society Press, Tue, 31 Jan 2006, p.67a >Download PDF
Digital government is a complex organizational and social phenomenon. It involves technical, organizational, and policy elements, as well as their complex and recursive interactions. Multi-method approaches have been shown as capable of presenting more comprehensive explanations of complex situations. This paper argues that multi-method approaches are valuable alternatives for e- government research.

Two case studies involving multi-method approaches to e-government research are presented to illustrate advantages and challenges in both large-scale and small-scale projects.1 The paper highlights some lessons learned from the two projects and suggests strategies to obtain the benefits and overcome some of the implementation challenges in doing multi-method digital government research.

©2006 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or to reuse any copyrighted component of this work in other works must be obtained from the IEEE.

Pardo, T. A. and Gil-Garcia, J. R.
Paper presented at the 66th Annual Conference of the American Society for Public Administration, Milwaukee, WI, Mon, 07 Oct 2005, Eleven pages >Download PDF
This paper contributes to the ongoing debate about multi-method approaches to studying social phenomena; in this contribution e-government is the social phenomenon of interest. A set of advantages and challenges to multi-method approaches are introduced and then used to frame a case analysis. Two case studies involving multi-method approaches to e-government research are presented to illustrate strategies for responding to implementation challenges in both large-scale and small-scale projects. The case discussion provides new insight into how the challenges to multi-method approaches can be managed.

J. Ramón Gil-García, Carrie A. Schneider, Theresa A. Pardo, and Anthony M. Cresswell
Proceedings of the Thirty-Eighth Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS 2005), Sat, 31 Jan 2005, >Download PDF
Traditional governmental structures have organized the capture, use, and management of information along agency lines. These “information silos” are not very useful in a dynamic environment. Information integration is considered one of the most significant ways to change the structure and function of public organizations. It has the potential to support the transformation of organizational structures and communication channels between and among multiple agencies working in different locations. This article contributes to this knowledge-building effort by examining the factors that influenced the success of selected criminal justice integration initiatives. Useful integration strategies are also identified.

Bodor, T., Thompson, F., and Demircivi, F.
Paper presented at the National Conference of Hungarian Psychological Association (PSZICHOLOGIA 2004), Debrecen, Hungary, Mon, 06 Oct 2004, >Download PDF
As statistics show, violent crime is more prevalent in the US than in Hungary. Consequently, U.S. law enforcement, and a wide range of criminal justice agencies, are seen as an important part of government. These agencies embody characteristics that make them similar to and different from their counterparts in other areas of government. The research reported on here unveils some of these characteristics as it looks at interactions among criminal justice agencies in their efforts to develop structures within which to share and integrate information across organizational boundaries in order to reduce crimes.

Luna-Reyes, L. F., Mojtahedzadeh, M., Andersen, D. F., Richardson, G. P., Pardo, T. A., Burke, G. B., Wu, Y., Cresswell, A. M., Bodor, T., Canestraro, D. S., Dawes, S. S., Demircivi, F., Schneider, C., and Thompson, F.
Proceedings of the Twenty-Second International Conference of the System Dynamics Society, Mon, 06 Oct 2004, pp.82-83 >Download PDF
The purpose of this paper is to describe a dynamic theory of the socio-technical processes involved in the definition of an Integration Information problem in New York State (NYS). In April 2003, the Criminal Justice Information Technology (CJIT) group of NYS was tasked with developing a framework to fulfill the goal of giving users of criminal justice data and information systems “one-stop shopping” access to the information needed to accomplish their mission. The research team of the Center for Technology in Government (CTG) collaborated with the CJIT group for an eight-month period during 2003 to accomplish this task. The CJIT-CTG team went through a series of conversations to specify the business problem and its context, and to identify feasible solutions and alternatives. This paper reports on a system dynamics model for understanding the dynamics of the socio-technical processes that took place during this project. This model building effort is looking for the development of a theory of interorganizational collaboration. The model is being developed in facilitated group model building (GMB) sessions with the team at CTG. Although the model presented in this paper is still preliminary, the model is capable to generated interesting scenarios with reasonable changes in the initial values of some parameters. Moreover, the model illustrates a powerful way to luse group model building and simulation as theory-building tools.

Luna-Reyes, L. F., Mojtahedzadeh, M., Andersen, D. F., Richardson, G. P., Pardo, T. A., Burke, G. B., Wu, Y., Cresswell, A. M., Bodor, T., Canestraro, D. S., Dawes, S. S., Demircivi, F., Schneider, C., and Thompson, F.
Proceedings of the Twenty-Second International Conference of the System Dynamics Society, Mon, 06 Oct 2004, pp.83-84 >Download PDF
The system dynamics group at Albany has been developing approaches to decision conferencing using a combination of group facilitation techniques linked to projected computer models in the room for more than 20 years. Over the years, the group has developed a series of pieces of small group processes to build system dynamics models with groups, i.e. scripts. The Group Model Building (GMB) process reported here has several characteristics that make it different from most other experiences in the group. While the common setting involves managers interested in tackling a specific problem, this work involves a research team interested in building theory about the complexity of intergovernmental information integration. Additionally, the reported GMB process took place in small sessions of two to three hours, while the common practice at Albany involves intensive one or two-day meetings. In this way, the paper will include general thoughts about the implications of these differences for the GMB process.

Pardo, T. A., Cresswell, A. M., Dawes, S. S., and Burke, G. B.
Proceedings of the Thirty-Seventh Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS 2004), Sat, 31 Jan 2004, p. 50120.1 >Download PDF
Government leaders and IT executives increasingly recognize that interorganizational information integration (III) is a critical and complex process. Due to the need for integrated information at all levels of government, interorganizational information integration can no longer be pursued through ad hoc approaches that primarily rely on intuitive understandings of the way government operates. This paper presents an effort currently underway to model the social and technical processes of interorganizational information integration to improve our understanding of information system development and of interorganizational collaboration. This research seeks to enhance both the conceptual and practical models of III by building new understanding of the interaction among the social and technical processes in interorganizational information integration.

©2004 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or to reuse any copyrighted component of this work in other works must be obtained from the IEEE.

Book Chapters (2)
Book Cover
Pardo, T. A., Gil-Garcia, J. R., and Burke, G. B.
Amsterdam: IOS Press, Thu, 01 Jan 2009, pp.180-197 >Download PDF
Sharing information across organizational boundaries is central to efforts to improve government operations and services. However, creating the capability necessary to enable information sharing across the boundaries of organizations is among the most difficult types of information technology projects. New knowledge about information sharing is required; in particular, new understanding about how government, non-governmental and private sector organizations come together to share information is necessary. This chapter draws on the experiences of key actors in three states in the United States as they organized to create new capability to share information as part of their responses to the West Nile virus outbreaks. The cases highlight the gap between expectations and reality, providing opportunity to more fully understand the gaps between expectations (the hype) about ICTs and the reality facing government practitioners who seek to use ICTs to share information. Examining the cases in terms of four contexts of information integration and sharing provides a more specific understanding about the gaps between these expectations and the reality (after the hype). The lessons learned in the context of public health include the central role of information sharing and the implications of resource constraints on data capture and use capability in the context of an outbreak management and surveillance effort. Insight into the interdependence of system design and process support and improvement in the context of public health surveillance was also found to be critical to future planning of public health surveillance systems. This chapter serves to reemphasize to both researchers and practitioners the need to close the gap between expectations and reality; the point is made again through the cases that closing the gap depends on strategies that draw on technology, process, interorganizational, and political perspectives and resources.

Pardo, T. A., Gil-Garcia, J. R., and Burke, G. B.
New York: Springer, Tue, 01 Jan 2008, pp.421-438 >Download PDF
Information is one of the most valuable resources in government. Government managers are finding however, that information needed to plan, make decisions, and act is often held outside their own organizations, maintained in disparate formats, and used for widely different purposes. Efforts to bring this data together across boundaries have provided new understanding into just how difficult cross-boundary information sharing is. Finding ways to bring together information and integrate it for use in solving pressing public problems is fast becoming a focus of attention for digital government practitioners and researchers alike. This chapter reports on one such study1 of cross-boundary information integration that revealed three important lessons for creating and sustaining cross-boundary information sharing: 1) interoperability is key, 2) a shift in agency culture is necessary, and 3) the role of policymakers is central to this type of project. Four recommendations for action derived from the case studies are presented as well. Government executives and policy-makers need to ensure the creation of enterprise-wide mechanisms and capabilities such as (1) governance structures, (2) resource allocation models, (3) scalable strategies, and (4) non-crisis capacity.

Results

Solving the Integration Puzzle

CIOs play a key role in creating the right kind of environment for information integration to succeed in government. > Download Article
By Theresa A. Pardo and Brian Burke
Public CIO Magazine
Summer 2005 Issue