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Publications & Results
Issue Briefs (1)
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As e-government advances beyond the early stages of basic information access and simple interactions toward active engagement of citizens and agencies, the tools enabling this progression will be those that promote networking and collaboration while addressing issues of data portability, reusability, and longevity. The flow of information will be the focus as government adapts to new demands for sharing, accessing, and distributing information.

Practical Guides (2)
Untangle the Web book cover
The technological advances of the last decade have changed the way we live and work. The World Wide Web is a perfect illustration. The Web offers people and organizations a whole new way to interact and communicate. This report provides a framework for helping local governments achieve the benefits of the Web without being overcome by its complexity.

E-government may be uncharted territory for many in local government, but technology clearly holds potential for improving the operations and outreach of local government. Local and county governments are trying to realize this potential by finding the best way to implement technology. This report is based on real-life experiences of local e-government pioneers throughout New York State and details strategies, funding, barriers, and benefits of their e-government initiatives. It also provides insight and advice for colleagues who are just starting out.

This resource serves as a communications tool to assist local and county governments trying to use technology to pursue e-government by providing case studies of successful initiatives. By using this resource local government officials can now approach e-government with greater confidence and understanding.

Online Resources (1)
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Tue, 01 Apr 2002
e-Gov FirstStop is a Web resource provided by CTG in response to government managers who asked for a central place to find quality information about e-government. This site includes a carefully selected collection of e-government materials including executive-level briefings, research and best practice reports, case studies, and Web sites. All resources included in e-Gov FirstStop are reviewed and selected by e-government practitioners and scholars.

Please note that e-Gov FirstStop was developed as a prototype resource and was operational from April through September of 2002. It has not been updated since September of 2002 and will not be updated in the future. It is temporarily unavailable.

Reports (6)
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While much is being said and written about big data and data science, much less attention has been given to the skills required of the current and next generation of public managers, policy analysts, and informed citizens who are expected to use new data resources and tools effectively. To begin to address this gap, on May 9, 2014, the Center for Technology in Government at the University at Albany hosted a one-day National Science Foundation (NSF) workshop (Grant # 054069) to explore the integration of data-intensive analytical skills in public affairs education. The event represented the convergence of two streams of activity in the United States and Europe on the topics of policy informatics and policy modeling developed over the past several years. This report highlights the opportunities, challenges, and next steps that emerged from the day.

E-Government, in all of its possibilities and permutations, is changing the way government conducts business and captures evidence of that business. Whether government agencies are delivering services via the Internet or just keeping track of contacts through a Web-based database, a range of electronic records challenges and opportunities emerge. This paper discusses those challenges and opportunities, and provides a flexible framework for making the most of new information systems for managing electronic records.

As Web sites have grown in size, complexity, and prominence over the past five years, Web site management has become a growing concern for Webmasters, system administrators, and organizations as a whole. According to this paper, new technology is helping to resolve the challenges of growing Web sites. While HTML Web pages require maintenance on a page by page basis, eXtensible Markup Language (XML) can streamline maintenance by enabling a single change in a root document to change each format of that document throughout the site.

This paper is based on CTG's presentation series entitled XML: From Static to Dynamic Web, which laid out the challenges of cutting-edge Web site management - involving content, layout, and style - and the effective solutions offered by XML (eXtensible Markup Language). This paper discuss challenges, examples of code, Web redesign analyses, and practical advice for using XML for site management.

Many assume e-government is solely about delivering government services over the Internet. This popular assumption is very limited for two reasons. First, it narrows our vision for e-government because it does not allow for the wide range of governmental activities that are not direct services; nor does it recognize the essential use of technologies other than the Internet. Second, it grossly oversimplifies the nature of e-government, leaving the impression that a nicely designed, user-oriented web site is the whole story. This ignores the substantial investments that are needed in people, tools, policies, and processes.

Policies about online government information came front and center following September 11th. Many government agencies removed information from their Web sites and began to scrutinize any new information. This document provides a thought-provoking examination of how information policy issues were reassessed in response to events of September 11. In this transcript, panelists explored questions of access to information on the Web, dissemination of government information, database integration, information sharing across organizational boundaries, and the new emphasis on system and data security.

Governments in the US are using a variety of methods to find out what citizens want from e-government services. These efforts are being conducted in a variety of ways, with different levels of formality and statistical reliability. This report presents those methods, and weighs the benefits and limitations of each of them.

A few are professionally designed public opinion surveys with random selection of respondents and formal statistical analyses. Others are informal efforts that ask citizens who visit state Web sites what they think about e-government services. Another kind of effort invites people to attend events where they discuss their needs and opinions.

The professional and informal surveys tend to offer respondents a fixed list of potential e-government services, and the same choices tend to be included from place to place. In response to these surveys, driver's licenses and voter registration usually top the list of desired e-services. The discussion method offers greater opportunity to explore ideas from different points of view and in more depth and therefore tend to generate longer lists of potential e-services that are tied to life events or areas of economic activity.

Journal Articles and Conference Papers (5)
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Natalie Helbig, Manabu Nakashima, and Sharon S. Dawes
Proceedings of the 13th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research (dg.o2012) , June 4-7, 2012, >Download PDF
Policy informatics is an emergent area of study that explores how information and communication technology can support policy making and governance. Policy informatics recognizes that more kinds, sources and volumes of information, coupled with evolving analytical and computational tools, present important opportunities to address increasingly complex social, political, and management problems. However, while new types and sources of information hold much promise for policy analysis, the specific characteristics of any particular government information resource strongly influences its fitness and usability for analytical purposes. We therefore contend thatinformation itself should be a critical research topic in policy informatics. This poster presentation shows how different aspects of information conceptualization, management, quality, and use can affect its “fitness” for policy analysis.

Natalie Helbig, Manabu Nakashima, and Sharon S. Dawes
Proceedings of the 13th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research (dg.o2012) , June 4-7, 2012, >Download PDF
Policy informatics is an emergent area of study that explores how information and communication technology can support policy making and governance. Policy informatics recognizes that more kinds, sources and volumes of information, coupled with evolving analytical and computational tools, present important opportunities to address increasingly complex social, political, and management problems. However, while new types and sources of information hold much promise for policy analysis, the specific characteristics of any particular government information resource strongly influences its fitness and usability for analytical purposes. We therefore contend thatinformation itself should be a critical research topic in policy informatics. This poster presentation shows how different aspects of information conceptualization, management, quality, and use can affect its “fitness” for policy analysis.

Sharon S. Dawes, Theresa A. Pardo, and Anthony M. Cresswell
Government Information Quarterly, Mon, 13 Dec 2003, >Download PDF
That electronic government information repositories are growing in number, use, and diversity is one manifestation of the emergence of e-government. These information-centered programs both shape and respond to user demand for electronic government information as computer-mediated user access has displaced traditional staff-mediated access. These programs are no longer concentrated in statistical agencies but increasingly are offered by a wide array of mission-driven operating agencies to complement their other services. This study identified the design dimensions of electronic information access programs by examining mature existing programs. These dimensions address users, uses, organizational capabilities, data characteristics, and technology. The study then explored the application and interdependence of these dimensions in three efforts to design and develop new access programs. The study produced an empirically based, testable model of observable dimensions that shape the cost, complexity, and potential performance of these programs. In addition, the article offers government managers some insight into the practical implications they will face in designing and operating electronic information access programs.

Mark LaVigne
Syracuse Law Review, Volume 52, Number 4, Sun, 01 Dec 2002, 1243-1251 >Download PDF
In a poll conducted last year for the Council for Excellence in Government, only 34 percent of citizens were familiar with electronic government. Though they may be going publicly unnoticed, e-government initiatives are changing the way that the public sector works and interacts with citizens, businesses, and other governments. This article introduces a four-faceted vision of e-government and describes some of the ways that it is already changing the way government works.

Theresa A. Pardo
IMP Magazine, Sun, 01 Oct 2000, >Download PDF
Many of us have already experienced the potential of the Web to change our relationships with other individuals, with the business community, and more recently with government. Getting citizens "out of line" and "getting them online" are phrases that are being used to create visions of the new relationship between citizens and government.

This article discusses the transformation that must take place before we can realize these and other promises of electronic government.

Working Papers (8)
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CTG Working Paper No. 08-2008

As a part of the National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program (NDIIPP), the Library of Congress sponsored a series of collaborative workshops between April and May 2005 to help state governments identify their needs and priorities for digital preservation. During these workshops, state and territory representatives showed strong interest in fostering partnership efforts and collaborative strategies toward preserving state government digital information. Based on the findings of the workshops and previous efforts on digital preservation, this paper discusses the challenges and opportunities regarding interorganizational collaboration and community building for digital preservation of state government information.

CTG Working Paper No. 07-2008

As government Web sites have grown in size, complexity, and prominence, Web site management, content management, maintenance costs, and accessibility have become growing concerns for federal, state and local governments. Government agencies are losing the ability to be responsive and flexible in providing new information and services and the costs of maintaining these Web sites have become prohibitive. Government webmasters and system administrators have come to realize that the technologies and strategies used in the past to build most Web sites are designed to produce individual Web pages. They do not provide a structure to easily maintain entire Web sites, keep them responsive to changing needs, or manage the workflow involved in Web content production and maintenance; nor do they facilitate the sharing and reuse of Web site content. This paper examines the potential of XML for Web site content management in government settings. Five state government agency teams were selected, looking for a mixture of several aspects such as technological expertise, organizational capabilities, agency size, and institutional environment. The study uses multiple research methods such as semi-structured interviews, surveys, and analysis of relevant documents to explore the benefits and challenges of using XML for Web site content management in government agencies. Overall, participants identified information consistency, reduction of data and content duplication, and compatibility with new devices and formats as the main benefits. Organizational and individual resistance to change, multiple and different priorities, and unrealistic goals were identified as the most important barriers. The paper also reports some differences in perceptions between technical and program staff.

CTG Working Paper No. 06-2008

Governments around the world are increasingly turning to information sharing and integration to help solve problems in a wide range of programs and policy areas. These complex interorganizational efforts face not only the technical challenges of many information technology initiatives, but also the difficulties derived from interacting among multiple and diverse organizations. Trust has been identified as one the most important organizational factors for cross-boundary information sharing and integration. However, more research is needed regarding the determinants of trust building in this multi-organizational contexts. This paper highlights the relevant role of trust in cross-boundary information sharing initiatives and provides evidence about three of its most important determinants.

CTG Working Paper No. 05-2008

The issue of organizational capability is central to virtually all efforts to improve government performance, particularly in the area of information technology innovation. Capability assessment can play an important role in the digital government domain in at least two ways: one is to provide a basis for judging whether agencies are ready to initiate some digital government innovation, and the other is to judge the impact of a digital government initiative in terms of improved capabilities. Data on capabilities targeted by digital government initiatives can provide both baseline measurements and evidence of subsequent improvements. As part of its research and development on several digital government projects, the Center for Technology in Government (CTG) has developed an approach to capability assessment, resulting in specific assessment toolkits for use in different types of digital government initiatives. This paper describes the approach used in developing these toolkits generally, with an example from one version intended for use in justice information integration projects. The paper includes the theoretical rationale for the design of the toolkits, methods for their use, and implications for use in practice.

CTG Working Paper No. 04-2008

Policy makers and public managers want and need to know how well government programs perform, but few have the information to accurately and continuously evaluate them. The dynamic nature of public programs, and the traditional methods used to assess them, compound this problem. Performance measurement and performance-based decisions can be improved by more sophisticated information systems designed for to support analysis and decision making. However, such systems demand close and continuing involvement of program staff, attention to programmatic context, and much better understanding of business processes and the data they generate. Through the use of a case example, the prototype Homeless Information Management System, this paper highlights how attention to these issues can lead to useful and usable performance analysis and evaluation systems.

CTG Working Paper No. 03-2008

Interorganizational networks are increasingly the subject of both theoretical and empirical research in sociology, economics, organizational behavior, and public and business management. While the most common network concepts and studies have focused on multi-organizational forms of production, “network” has also emerged as a way to describe how organizations share and integrate knowledge and information. This paper focuses on a type of network that is increasingly important in public affairs, but largely unaccounted for in the extant literature – the public sector knowledge network. The paper synthesizes and augments the exiting literature to include public sector knowledge networks. It then identifies performance measures that can be used to evaluate them at the network, organizational, and individual levels of analysis and identifies critical success factors that pertain to each level.

CTG Working Paper No. 02-2008

The purpose of this study was to assess the publishing patterns of digital government (DG) research in top scholarly journals in the fields of public administration (PA), public policy (PP), and management information systems (MIS) within the last five years (See Table 1). DG research was published in nine of the twelve top journals in these fields since 1999. A total of 114 DG articles were identified, representing approximately 4.9 percent of the total number of articles published in these journals between 1999 and 2003. It seems that the top journals have published DG research in limited ways given public and media attention and increased funding opportunities to conduct e-government research.

CTG Working Paper No. 01-2008

This paper presents a conceptual model of how organizations collaborate to deliver electronic public services. The model is derived from a comparative study of 12 e-government collaborations in Canada, the US, and Europe that involved various combinations of public, private, and nonprofit organizations pursuing a variety of service objectives. The study draws on the literature of interorganizational relations, as well as management information systems, public management, and organizational behavior to devise a preliminary model of how such collaborations form and operate. The case study data are then compared to the preliminary model and a revised, more dynamic model is presented. The revised model more closely fits the case experiences across various service types, project structures, and national settings.

Lessons Learned

E-Government: Creating Tools of the Trade

Boiled down to its essence, electronic government promises to make connections. Citizen to government. Government to business. Local to state. State to federal. Agency to agency. The possible connections and their implications are practically limitless.

The work needed to make those connections effective for all will occupy public agencies for the foreseeable future. This work is very important, highly visible, and admittedly difficult. Lots of new ground is being cleared, but the old reliable tools are not enough to do the job. In a recent environmental scan of the e-government landscape, the Center for Technology in Government found both promise and challenge. Those working to achieve the vision of e-government often need to find or invent some new tools and solutions along the way. Here are some of them.

A path through the vast amounts of information being disseminated about e-government to those really useful items that can help e-government projects move forward. There is a tremendous amount of activity out there. Technology companies, professional associations, government reports, technology trade journals, and consulting companies are all weighing in on e-government. It's difficult to cut through it all to identify the material that offers sound analysis and usable advice.

A strategy that closes the distance between the skills needed and the skills available to achieve e-government. The brain drain of highly skilled government IT workers is a concern on many levels. According to civic.com, a Council of State Government poll said that 47 of 50 states reported a shortage of IT workers. Experienced people who have worked with an agency's technology systems for the past decade or two are retiring or leaving for better pay in the private sector. Competition between government and private companies for new graduates with new skills and for seasoned professionals with deep experience will continue to be a challenge.

A way to bridge the gap between government expectations and citizen awareness of e-government services. While 84 percent of government officials said the Internet has improved their outreach to citizens, only 29 percent of citizens (and 37 percent of business leaders) are at all familiar with e-government, according to a recent Hart-Teeter poll conducted for the Council for Excellence in Government. While this number will change as more government services and transactions go online, this dichotomy must be reflected in early expectations for e-government.

A strategy for reaching the people who need government services regardless of their access to the Internet. A gap, commonly known as the "digital divide," exists between those households that have access to the Internet and online services and those that don't. Online services don't work when citizens don't have the necessary computers and Internet connections to receive them. And these citizens, who tend to be isolated or poor, may be the ones most in need of government services. That means traditional (or multiple) modes of service delivery may be needed for some time to come.

A transformation from our tradition of program-driven services to e-government's promise of integrated service. Like any new technology project, electronic government is difficult, but it's made even more difficult because it places so much pressure on the entire enterprise. The e-government vision is a vision of integrated information and services. This means radical changes may be needed in what happens behind the Web site that citizens see. New business processes, different information flows, changed policies, advanced security measures, and new data management methods are all part of the integration story. This deeply transformational work is why leadership is so critical, and why a new report from the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University, "Eight Imperatives for Leaders in a Networked World," says "to be an effective leader in our networked world, you need to engage IT issues. You need to play a key role in establishing strategic direction, implementing specific projects, and formulating new public policies."

A shift from yesterday's static Web to the new dynamic Web. The future of an agency's work now rests in new and evolving technologies that support real-time, dynamic interactions. The Web began in government as an exciting way to present static content to virtually anyone. It required new presentation skills and technologies, such as HTML; the agency's business rules were applied before the content was posted on the Web site. Some e-government applications will still be of this type, but most will move to a dynamic state. In these applications, the business rules must be applied on the fly as information from users interacts with agency databases to produce new services. These applications demand dynamic technologies involving data access, database management, authentication, and security of a very different nature from the old Web. The dynamic Web makes closer connections between an agency's internal systems and the outside world, presenting new risks and demanding new tools and techniques for managing them.

A way to offer services through e-government portals that resolves the issues associated with privacy and data sharing. Service and data integration projects are classic examples of being on the "bleeding edge" of technology. Ask anyone who has worked on one. According to the National Electronic Commerce Coordinating Council, "Sharing data from multiple sources is a challenge that has become more fundamental as portal technology advances." Yet system architects continue to face "the same barriers that have plagued client/server and mainframe application developers." Data integration requires new business processes, increases technical complexity, demands reliable security, and presents serious data privacy, quality, and ownership issues.

A road map from where we are now to where we want to be in the future. According to "Creating Citizen-Centric Digital Government," a new guide from the National Association of State Chief Information Officers (NASCIO), "In the coming years, citizens will use the Internet to build a relationship with government that is personal, custom-built for each user with features that are accessible. Digital government will be easy to use, consistent in its appearance and functionality, offer a complete selection of services that are unified across agencies, and available around the clock. Citizens will be aware of their rights to privacy and able to control governmental use of their personal information." Yet, according to a study conducted by Brown University, "Government Web sites are not making full use of available technology, and there are problems in terms of access and democratic outreach."

Supporting "Government Without Walls"
To help realize the promise of the future, NASCIO also reported that chief information officers and IT executives across the country want guidelines and frameworks that address e-government, case studies that illustrate how other agencies and states are developing e-government, model policies, best practices stories, and proven methods for engaging top executives and legislators. To help fill those needs, CTG will offer an e-government roundtable on March 22, where we'll ask you, the people creating e-government services in New York, to tell us what you need to know to succeed.

We will use the results of this roundtable to guide us to projects and investigations that answer the pressing questions of those engaged, or about to be engaged, in e-government work. In addition, we will continue scanning the state, national, and global environment to identify and report best and current e-government practices. In partnership with the New York State Forum for Information Resource Management's E-commerce Standing Committee, we'll also take a close look at new technologies that may be around the next bend. Our goal? An array of reliable, timely, and practical tools for the builders of a government without walls.

Public Events

A Report from the E-Government Roundtable Center for Technology in Government, April 2001

How do you build a "government without walls?" Technology can help--but not without vision, skill, and an array of other tools and resources designed for a new way of working.

On March 22, 2001, 79 representatives from 43 organizations (including 35 state agencies, 3 local governments, and 5 non-profit or private sector organizations) met in a roundtable event to discuss key aspects of e-government development in New York State. They identified 45 topics of concern and selected 17 of them for small group discussions. Each discussion group elaborated on the characteristics or dimensions of one topic, and then suggested related tools, techniques, and activities that would help them move toward e-government goals.

The eight themes below emerged from the roundtable discussions, and cover the full scope of the e-government challenge. They range from planning and design, to adaptation, implementation, and evaluation. They focus on both user needs and agency capabilities. Special attention is focused on the need to transform existing operations, and to build the relationships that will bring government services to the customer rather than the other way around. Over the next year, CTG will respond to these themes by working with state and local agencies, as well as corporate and academic partners, to produce a variety of "tools of the trade" for e-government. Some of these will be new resources, others will compile information that exists in other places and present it a readily useful way. While our platform will be e-government initiatives in New York, we hope and expect these products will also support e-government development in many other places.

Needs analysis for citizens, businesses, and government
Because e-government encompasses Government to Citizen, Government to Business, and Government to Government applications, the characteristics, needs and capabilities of users vary greatly. Designers need to specify who their users or customers are, and what they need or expect from an e-service. They must also understand the technological capabilities of users and the extent of context, content, or policy knowledge that is necessary for them to use an e-service. This category of user-oriented concerns also includes the need for outreach, education, and marketing of e-services, and consideration of multiple service delivery mechanisms that will make e-services widely accessible.

Alternative service designs
E-services can be designed in a variety of ways, each generating different costs and benefits to both government and users. Some design choices include the methods of user or customer access; the kind of data that will be collected and how it will be used; the level of security that must be maintained; the extent of record keeping that will be necessary; the hours of service availability; the nature and extent of user or customer support; and the degree of responsiveness and customization. Agencies also need ways to stay abreast of their technology options for these features. In addition, agencies need to have good baseline performance data, as well as projections of future demand. These figures will help them make informed design decisions, including which services need extensive re-thinking, and which deserve expensive 24x7 on-line support. Agencies also need to be able to choose wisely among options to buy, build, or borrow their service applications. They also want to be able to present their executive leaders with well-reasoned business cases for e-government investments.

Back office transformation
Like an iceberg, the invisible part of e-government may well be the largest. Significant behind-the-scenes changes are necessary for successful and cost-effective e-government applications. Back office capabilities soar in importance when agencies move from the static presentation of information to dynamic services that involve direct communications and transactions. Back office transformation usually includes major business process and work flow improvements; fundamental re-thinking of data definitions and data quality factors; and records creation, maintenance, and preservation rules. This much change entails a large amount of risk, so risk assessments of various kinds are needed. If an e-service involves more than one program or organization, then data sharing, process linkages, and system integration add more risk and complexity. These critical transformations can be extremely difficult, time consuming, and expensive. Consequently, they require strong and consistent executive level support.

Security, authenticity, and citizen trust
These considerations have both government and user dimensions. Customer beliefs about the trustworthiness of electronic services are as problematic for government as they are for business. Users need to be able to trust that government is handling information about them with care, confidentiality, and security. They also need assurance that the information government provides to them is authentic and trustworthy for their use. Government has complementary concerns. For many applications, government needs confidence that users are who they say they are. Agencies also need to be certain that their service systems are well-protected against hacking, fraud, and misuse.

Collaboration
The benefits of collaboration across program, agency, and jurisdictional boundaries include economies of scale, new resource development, less duplication of effort, and more customer-oriented services. Due to their often limited resources, local governments and smaller state agencies, in particular, stand to benefit from collaboration. Citizens and businesses would benefit most from the simplicity and responsiveness of integrated services and streamlined processes. Despite these payoffs, incentives seldom exist for intergovernmental sharing and collaboration. These might include special funding for cross-agency initiatives, more latitude for demonstrations and pilot programs, and education and guidelines for managing multi-organizational projects. Collaboration would also be encouraged by inventories of skills, services, and programs and by adoption of key technical and data standards.

Expertise
E-government demands many kinds of expertise ranging from program knowledge to project management to technical skill. Today, the most problematic factor is the difficulty government experiences in recruiting and retaining people with IT expertise. Agencies are looking for practices and strategies that have been successful for other jurisdictions. In many cases, agencies supplement their own staff with contractors, making contract and contractor management a critical new skill area. In this competitive market, government managers need to know where to find the right expertise, and how to manage it well. This often means bringing consultants up to speed on the agency's business, coordinating them with employees, and managing the transfer of knowledge in both directions.

E-Government service evaluation
How do you know if your e-government service is effective or affordable or available when and where it is needed? Periodic planned evaluations can answer these crucial questions. These can be designed to compare an e-service to its traditional counterpart, to assess user or customer satisfaction, to determine cost-effectiveness, or to identify areas for improvement, enhancement, or cancellation. Evaluations of this kind can be classified as return on investment or ROI studies. They need reliable data on a variety of factors, including full costs collected over some extended period of time. This kind of information allows for points of comparison to earlier forms of service, earlier time periods, or benchmarks in other jurisdictions.

Knowledge building and sharing
Throughout the roundtables, participants called for ways to tap into the expertise, experience, and knowledge available across state and local government. They talked about the creation of a repository of accumulated knowledge about e-government expertise, tools, projects, and results. This resource could include
  • reference information about such topics as training opportunities
  • tools and guidelines for various e-government activities and decisions
  • case studies, briefing papers, and lessons learned
  • lists of experts and peers willing to lend their advice
  • links to external resources in other states or the private sector
They also envisioned interactive features such as listservs, moderated discussion groups, and electronic collaboration tools that would make it easier to tap into each other's knowledge and experience. Participants also wanted to engage in hands on investigations and prototyping of applications, especially ones that can be replicated in different localities or that involve interorganizational collaboration.

Next step: which tools to build?

The roundtable discussions produced many ideas and suggestions for action. Some of the suggestions were outside the ability of an applied research organization like CTG to address (for example, suggestions that certain laws be changed). Most of them, however, present excellent opportunities for research, development, and education that could benefit many agencies.

The following list presents the suggested tools that CTG might produce over the next year. Our immediate next step is to ask government managers to help us prioritize these ideas. Once we understand which ones are most important to the people who are building e-government applications, we'll invite agencies and corporate and academic partners to participate in their development.

Executive Briefing Papers
  • Briefing paper for top executives on the critical need for back office transformation
  • Briefing paper on the elements of trust in e-government
  • Briefing paper on the realities of working with contractors
Technology Briefing Sessions
  • Methods and issues of data sharing
  • Evaluating and choosing methods of authentication
  • Making the transition from static to dynamic use of the Web
Practical Guides
  • Guide to identifying e-government customers and their needs
  • Guide to privacy risk assessment
  • Guide to making e-service design decisions
  • Guide for deciding when 24x7 is the right choice for service availability
  • Guide to collecting baseline measures on cost and performance of existing services
  • Guide to building a business case for e-government applications
  • Guide for managing and using electronic records in e-government
  • Guide to back office readiness for e-government
  • Guide to promoting the use of e-government services
  • Guide for conducting a return on investment (ROI) analysis for e-government
Hands-on Investigations and Prototypes
  • Create a Web-based resource that serves as an e-government knowledge repository and encourages the sharing of questions, ideas, answers, and general knowledge about e-government
  • Local government e-government application laboratory
  • Interagency e-government application laboratory
Case Studies
  • Case study of a customer needs analysis
  • Case study of an e-government marketing effort
  • Case studies of interagency or intergovernmental collaboration projects
  • Case study of an e-government service evaluation
Research and Best Practice Reports
  • Top reasons for citizen distrust in electronic communication
  • Strategies for dealing with the government IT skills crunch
  • Business process implications of e-government