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Creating an effective Web site at an efficient cost is a goal for most government agencies. This guide was created to help organizations develop Web sites that meet their needs at a cost that they can estimate in advance.

Creating an effective Web site at an efficient cost is a goal for most government agencies. This guide was created to help organizations develop Web sites that meet their needs at a cost that they can estimate in advance. Through a structured process, the reader is guided toward a better understanding of the cost and performance factors involved in creating a Web service, and in maintaining an effective presence on the World Wide Web. The guide addresses many of the factors relevant to conducting an effective effort, including defining service goals, evaluating infrastructure needs, and estimating the human resources required to sustain the effort. By applying the tools to a planned project, the reader should have a new and valuable perspective on the process of developing a useful Web service.

This white paper provides an analysis process that starts with a high level view of the IT investment and then drills down through successive steps to identify the specific measures and methods that will reveal and document public value. The assessment can be tailored to the size and nature of a particular investment decision. The framework is broad in scope so that it can be applied to virtually any government IT investment – from simple Web sites to government-wide information systems and architectures.

This white paper provides an analysis process that starts with a high level view of the IT investment and then drills down through successive steps to identify the specific measures and methods that will reveal and document public value. The assessment can be tailored to the size and nature of a particular investment decision. The framework is broad in scope so that it can be applied to virtually any government IT investment – from simple Web sites to government-wide information systems and architectures.

In addition to this white paper, CTG developed five case study reports:
  1. The Austrian Federal Budgeting and Bookkeeping System – Federal Government of Austria’s Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) implementation to standardize the federal government’s budgeting and bookkeeping processes.
  2. The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania’s Integrated Enterprise System – Commonwealth of Pennsylvania’s ERP implementation to put in place the technical infrastructure and enterprise standards for core administrative functions.
  3. The Government of Israel’s Merkava Project – Government of Israel’s ERP implementation to restructure the financial, logistics, and human resource components of governmentwide administration.
  4. Service New Brunswick – A multi-channel “single window” citizen access to government services in New Brunswick, Canada.
  5. The Washington State Digital Archives – The State of Washington’s investment in digital archiving for government records to provide collection, preservation, and access to records of enduring legal and historical significance.


Substantial opportunity exists to share spatial data, knowledge, and other resources across programs in the public and private sectors. This report discusses the mechanisms for evaluating public sector geographic information systems (GIS).

Substantial opportunity exists to share spatial data, knowledge, and other resources across programs in the public and private sectors. This report is a discussion of the mechanisms for evaluating public sector geographic information systems (GIS). It presents strategies for quantifying potential system benefits, and it shows what opportunities exist for containing costs and maximizing the benefits of GIS implementation. The role of partnerships and information sharing is stressed in the context of maximizing the value of GIS in public organizations.

The issue of organizational capability is central to virtually all efforts to improve government performance, particularly in the area of information technology innovation. Capability assessment can play an important role in the digital government domain in at least two ways: one is to provide a basis for judging whether agencies are ready to initiate some digital government innovation, and the other is to judge the impact of a digital government initiative in terms of improved capabilities. Data on capabilities targeted by digital government initiatives can provide both baseline measurements and evidence of subsequent improvements. As part of its research and development on several digital government projects, the Center for Technology in Government (CTG) has developed an approach to capability assessment, resulting in specific assessment toolkits for use in different types of digital government initiatives. This paper describes the approach used in developing these toolkits generally, with an example from one version intended for use in justice information integration projects. The paper includes the theoretical rationale for the design of the toolkits, methods for their use, and implications for use in practice.

CTG Working Paper No. 05-2008

The issue of organizational capability is central to virtually all efforts to improve government performance, particularly in the area of information technology innovation. Capability assessment can play an important role in the digital government domain in at least two ways: one is to provide a basis for judging whether agencies are ready to initiate some digital government innovation, and the other is to judge the impact of a digital government initiative in terms of improved capabilities. Data on capabilities targeted by digital government initiatives can provide both baseline measurements and evidence of subsequent improvements. As part of its research and development on several digital government projects, the Center for Technology in Government (CTG) has developed an approach to capability assessment, resulting in specific assessment toolkits for use in different types of digital government initiatives. This paper describes the approach used in developing these toolkits generally, with an example from one version intended for use in justice information integration projects. The paper includes the theoretical rationale for the design of the toolkits, methods for their use, and implications for use in practice.

This assessment report was prepared by the Center for Technology in Government (CTG) under a contract with the NYS Office of Children and Family Services (OCFS). The purpose of the work was to assess the performance of mobile technology deployed in a pilot test program with child protective service (CPS) workers. The mobile technologies were deployed to a sample of CPS workers for use in their field work and reporting responsibilities. The pilot was conducted in three Local Departments of Social Services (Local Districts): the New York City Administration for Children’s Services (NYC/ACS), Westchester County Department of Social Services, Family and Children's Services, and Monroe County Department of Human Services, Child and Family Services Division. OCFS engaged the Center for Technology in Government to conduct this assessment and provide a report to the Commissioner of OCFS to assist in decision making and planning for possible further deployment of these technologies.

This assessment report was prepared by the Center for Technology in Government (CTG) under a contract with the NYS Office of Children and Family Services (OCFS). The purpose of the work was to assess the performance of mobile technology deployed in a pilot test program with child protective service (CPS) workers. The mobile technologies were deployed to a sample of CPS workers for use in their field work and reporting responsibilities. The pilot was conducted in three Local Departments of Social Services (Local Districts): the New York City Administration for Children’s Services (NYC/ACS), Westchester County Department of Social Services, Family and Children's Services, and Monroe County Department of Human Services, Child and Family Services Division. OCFS engaged the Center for Technology in Government to conduct this assessment and provide a report to the Commissioner of OCFS to assist in decision making and planning for possible further deployment of these technologies.

NYS's Office of Children and Family Services (OCFS) and the Center for Technology in Government (CTG) partnered to learn more about the impact of mobile technology use in child protective services (CPS) in New York State. In the Demonstration Project in 23 Local Social Service Districts, 450 laptops and tablets were deployed to CPS caseworkers in 23 NYS Local Social Services Districts. CTG conducted the independent assessment where the evaluation focused on mobility, productivity, and satisfaction as well as addressed environmental factors in statewide IT deployment. The summary report looks at high level impacts across all districts and the profiles detail findings from each individual district.

NYS's Office of Children and Family Services (OCFS) and the Center for Technology in Government (CTG) partnered to learn more about the impact of mobile technology use in child protective services (CPS) in New York State. In the Demonstration Project in 23 Local Social Service Districts, 450 laptops and tablets were deployed to CPS caseworkers in 23 NYS Local Social Services Districts. CTG conducted the independent assessment where the evaluation focused on mobility, productivity, and satisfaction as well as addressed environmental factors in statewide IT deployment. The summary report looks at high level impacts across all districts and the profiles detail findings from each individual district.

This assessment report was done under contract with the NYS Office of Children and Family Services (OCFS) and in conjunction with the NYC Administration for Children Services (ACS). This project involved a large scale deployment of wireless laptops to CPS workers in New York City's ACS. The pilot ran from August – October 2007 and involved approximately 135 child protective services workers and supervisors in the Staten Island and Williams Street (Manhattan) offices. The report shows the complexity of deploying technology into a well established profession. The study focused on mobility, productivity, and satisfaction, and includes a set of recommendations and future considerations.

This assessment report was done under contract with the NYS Office of Children and Family Services (OCFS) and in conjunction with the NYC Administration for Children Services (ACS).

This project involved a large scale deployment of wireless laptops to CPS workers in New York City's ACS. The pilot ran from August – October 2007 and involved approximately 135 child protective services workers and supervisors in the Staten Island and Williams Street (Manhattan) offices. The report shows the complexity of deploying technology into a well established profession. The study focused on mobility, productivity, and satisfaction, and includes a set of recommendations and future considerations.

The New York State (NYS) Mobile Technology Demonstration Project is a multi-year initiative to assess the use of mobile technologies in child protective services (CPS) work in New York State. Starting in 2006, this collaborative effort among the NYS Office of Children and Family Services (OCFS), county Departments of Social Services (DSS or local district), and the Center for Technology in Government (CTG) at the University at Albany has had four distinct evaluation studies. This assessment focuses on the most recent effort in 2008-2009. Starting in January 2009, twenty-six NYS local social service districts received mobile technologies for CPS. There were 505 mobile devices deployed CPS caseworkers and supervisors and managers. This assessment solely addresses measures of productivity and efficiency.

The New York State (NYS) Mobile Technology Demonstration Project is a multi-year initiative to assess the use of mobile technologies in child protective services (CPS) work in New York State. Starting in 2006, this collaborative effort among the NYS Office of Children and Family Services (OCFS), county Departments of Social Services (DSS or local district), and the Center for Technology in Government (CTG) at the University at Albany has had four distinct evaluation studies. This assessment focuses on the most recent effort in 2008-2009. Starting in January 2009, twenty-six NYS local social service districts received mobile technologies for CPS. There were 505 mobile devices deployed CPS caseworkers and supervisors and managers. This assessment solely addresses measures of productivity and efficiency.

A WWW Starter Kit
Mon, 01 Apr 1996 >Download PDF
Being on the Internet can mean many different things. For most government organizations, it means creating a Web site. This starter kit is designed to help begin the process of getting on the Web without having to reinvent the wheel.

Being on the Internet can mean many different things. For most government organizations, it means creating a World Wide Web site, but it might also entail e-mail, gopher servers, news groups and a host of other ways to communicate, share information, and deliver services electronically. This World Wide Web Starter Kit is based on CTG's experiences with a project we call the Internet Services Testbed. By working with seven state and local agencies to develop Web sites for their particular programs and customers, CTG has learned a lot about how to approach this fascinating, powerful, and ever-changing technology. This starter kit won't put you in the WWW business overnight. In fact, it lacks many of the technical tools that you will need to accomplish that goal. Instead, it helps you begin the process without having to reinvent the wheel.

This project report details the Gateway Prototype project from conceptualization and development to findings and recommendations. The Prototype was developed to create a single point of contact among state and local governments to test and evaluate mechanisms for government-to-government (G2G) business relationships.

The New York State-Local Internet Gateway Prototype was built to identify, demonstrate, and evaluate key factors associated with the design, development, and deployment of a single point of contact for G2G work among state and local governments. The Prototype development was conducted in three stages. The first focused on the refinement of the idea of a gateway and the selection of applications to be included in the Prototype. The second stage was the development of a Prototype (the Gateway and three business applications), and the final stage consisted of Prototype testing and refinement. During these three stages, the project participants were organized into specialized teams and partnered with corporate software development teams. Together, they then tested the Prototype.

Having the right skills, competencies, and technical tools can help government managers use information more effectively in their work. This report, which summarizes the second seminar in the UIG Seminar Series, focuses on ways to get the most from government information.

The Center for Technology in Government (CTG), through the Using Information in Government (UIG) program, has worked with New York State agency project teams and partners from the public, private, and academic sectors to identify benefits and strategies for integrating and using information for program planning, evaluation, and decision making. The policy, management, and technology issues identified through our work with agency teams were shared with the public in a series of seminars focused on increasing the value of information to government programs. "Information Use Tools and Skill Sets" is a summary of the second UIG Seminar, which was held in May 1999. The seminar highlighted the kind of analytical tools public managers should use to get the most out of their information for planning, evaluation, and decision making. This summary includes the presentations that focused on the new skill sets, information-related competencies, technical tools, and techniques that government program managers can use to ensure that relevant information is identified and used.

Governments around the world are increasingly turning to information sharing and integration to help solve problems in a wide range of programs and policy areas. These complex interorganizational efforts face not only the technical challenges of many information technology initiatives, but also the difficulties derived from interacting among multiple and diverse organizations. Trust has been identified as one the most important organizational factors for cross-boundary information sharing and integration. However, more research is needed regarding the determinants of trust building in this multi-organizational contexts. This paper highlights the relevant role of trust in cross-boundary information sharing initiatives and provides evidence about three of its most important determinants.

CTG Working Paper No. 06-2008

Governments around the world are increasingly turning to information sharing and integration to help solve problems in a wide range of programs and policy areas. These complex interorganizational efforts face not only the technical challenges of many information technology initiatives, but also the difficulties derived from interacting among multiple and diverse organizations. Trust has been identified as one the most important organizational factors for cross-boundary information sharing and integration. However, more research is needed regarding the determinants of trust building in this multi-organizational contexts. This paper highlights the relevant role of trust in cross-boundary information sharing initiatives and provides evidence about three of its most important determinants.

Decisions to invest in digital preservation projects must be grounded in a full understanding of the ability of those involved to identify and fill the gaps between current and required capability. This toolkit is designed for library, archives, records management, and information technology professionals to assess where capability for digital preservation exists and where it must be developed in order to achieve the goal of preserving significant at-risk government information.

State and local governments are creating vast amounts of information solely in digital form, including land data, school records, official publications and court records. Much of this material is of permanent value, yet is at risk because of fragile media, technological obsolescence, or other hazards. State libraries and state archives typically have broad responsibility for preserving and providing public access to state and local government information of enduring value, but many other agencies also play critical roles in managing and preserving digital information.

States vary greatly in the work already undertaken on behalf of digital preservation, as well as in the resources available for the task. The degree and focus of leadership for digital preservation varies from state to state, as do the specific priorities for immediate preservation attention. This variation comes in part because there is currently no consensus view about how states (or other organizations) should go about doing digital preservation. The challenge is both so new and so large that everyone is still trying to determine the best methods.

This toolkit is designed for library, archives, records management, and information technology professionals to use when considering or planning for a digital preservation initiative. It provides a process for assessing where capability for digital preservation exists and where it must be developed in order to achieve the goal of preserving significant and at risk government information.

The toolkit is presented in four chapters as well as a comprehensive set of worksheets and related materials. Chapters 1-4 and Appendices 1-8 are available for download in PDF. Note: In order to help users of the toolkit compile multiple capability assessment ratings electronically, Appendix 8. Dimension Worksheets is provided also as a separate Microsoft Word document.

Coordinating geographic information collected by different agencies and local governments can help promote three program areas of vital importance in New York State: economic development, environmental conservation, and public health and safety.

One of the underlying assumptions of the NYS Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Cooperative project is that GIS is a valuable public management tool, whose benefits could be enhanced through increased coordination. This project sought to identify the value of geographic information systems and spatial data in the public sector, as well as to examine mechanisms and opportunities for leveraging the benefits and minimizing costs. This value can be seen across a broad array of program areas. This report demonstrates the value that GIS can add to three programmatic areas of vital importance to New York State: economic development, environmental conservation, and public health and safety.

Best and current practice research can help government managers learn from the experiences of others and discover what works and what doesn't. This starter kit contains step-by-step instructions for how to conduct that research.

Any issues facing your agency, no matter how unique they may seem, are likely to have occurred and been solved elsewhere. Best and current practices research is designed to help organizations learn from the experiences of others. You can discover what works and what doesn't, as well as how to replicate successes and avoid mistakes.

This starter kit contains step-by-step instructions on how to conduct best and current practices research. The publication also provides a number of resources that can help you research your particular problem.

This report summarizes the technical development of the New York State-Local Internet Gateway Prototype. Each phase is highlighted including, prototype design, development, testing, and support. Also shared are lessons learned and considerations for future development.

The New York State-Local Internet Gateway Prototype was built to test the idea of a single point of contact for government-to-government (G2G) work among multiple state and local governments in range of policy areas. The Prototype channeled multiple G2G business functions through a secure, single sign-on, role-based system accessible through the Internet. The goal of the Prototype was to assess management, policy, technology, and cost implications likely to be associated with the development of a full-scale G2G system and to understand what would be necessary for state, county, and municipal governments to realize greater efficiency, high quality authentic data, and more consistent and coordinated services.

E-Government is changing the way government conducts business and captures records created during that business. This paper provides a framework for developing new e-government systems that foster electronic records management.

E-Government, in all of its possibilities and permutations, is changing the way government conducts business and captures evidence of that business. Whether government agencies are delivering services via the Internet or just keeping track of contacts through a Web-based database, a range of electronic records challenges and opportunities emerge. This paper discusses those challenges and opportunities, and provides a flexible framework for making the most of new information systems for managing electronic records.

New levels of capability for coordinated action across organizational boundaries are required in order for government to realize the transformative potential of technology and cope with new economic imperatives. This report outlines five recommendations for change developed through a collaborative, consensus-driven process conducted by CTG on behalf of the New York State CIO community. These recommendations are targeted at building new capability for enterprise information technology investment decision making for New York State. The recommendations extend existing enterprise IT governance capability by introducing a new level of transparency in decision making, increasing the opportunity for alignment of IT investments with New York State’s strategic priorities, and fostering the development of policies and standards to guide those investments.

New levels of capability for coordinated action across organizational boundaries are required in order for government to realize the transformative potential of technology and cope with new economic imperatives. This report outlines five recommendations for change developed through a collaborative, consensus-driven process conducted by CTG on behalf of the New York State CIO community. These recommendations are targeted at building new capability for enterprise information technology investment decision making for New York State. The recommendations extend existing enterprise IT governance capability by introducing a new level of transparency in decision making, increasing the opportunity for alignment of IT investments with New York State’s strategic priorities, and fostering the development of policies and standards to guide those investments.

Policy makers and public managers want and need to know how well government programs perform, but few have the information to accurately and continuously evaluate them. The dynamic nature of public programs, and the traditional methods used to assess them, compound this problem. Performance measurement and performance-based decisions can be improved by more sophisticated information systems designed for to support analysis and decision making. However, such systems demand close and continuing involvement of program staff, attention to programmatic context, and much better understanding of business processes and the data they generate. Through the use of a case example, the prototype Homeless Information Management System, this paper highlights how attention to these issues can lead to useful and usable performance analysis and evaluation systems.

CTG Working Paper No. 04-2008

Policy makers and public managers want and need to know how well government programs perform, but few have the information to accurately and continuously evaluate them. The dynamic nature of public programs, and the traditional methods used to assess them, compound this problem. Performance measurement and performance-based decisions can be improved by more sophisticated information systems designed for to support analysis and decision making. However, such systems demand close and continuing involvement of program staff, attention to programmatic context, and much better understanding of business processes and the data they generate. Through the use of a case example, the prototype Homeless Information Management System, this paper highlights how attention to these issues can lead to useful and usable performance analysis and evaluation systems.

The quality of data in data warehouses is crucial to the effective use of the warehouse. This paper examines the issues associated with data quality and maps the issues to features available in data quality software tools. Examples of the tools are also included.

It is estimated that as much as 75% of the effort spent on building a data warehouse can be attributed to back-end issues, such as readying the data and transporting it into the data warehouse (Atre, 1998). Data quality tools are used in data warehousing to ready the data and ensure that clean data populates the warehouse, thus enhancing its usability.

This research paper focuses on the data problems that are addressed by data quality tools. Specific questions of the data can elicit information that will determine which features of data quality tools are appropriate in which circumstances. The primary objective of the effort is to develop a tool to support the identification of data quality issues and the selection of tools for addressing those issues. A secondary objective is to provide information on specific tools regarding price, platform, and unique features of the tool.

Dealing with Data
Wed, 01 Feb 1999 >Download PDF
Proper data management is instrumental for successful information systems. This report, which summarizes the first seminar in the UIG Seminar Series, focuses on data quality management, data tools and techniques, long term maintenance and preservation, and real life experiences with data issues.

The Center for Technology in Government (CTG), through the Using Information in Government (UIG) program, has worked with New York State agency project teams and partners from the public, private, and academic sectors to identify benefits and strategies for integrating and using information for program planning, evaluation, and decision making. The policy, management, and technology issues identified through our work with agency teams were shared with the public in a series of seminars focused on increasing the value of information to government programs.

Dealing with Data, the first seminar in the series, was held in February 1999. It covered a variety of data issues. The report summarizes the presentations and panel discussions on data quality management, data tools and techniques, long term maintenance and preservation, and real life experiences with data issues.

Government is all about information and service delivery. The Web seems perfectly suited for that work. This report presents a set of practical tools to help government agencies refine and narrow the objectives of the Web services they are developing.

Government is all about information and service delivery. The World Wide Web, offering virtually unlimited access and almost instant feedback, seems perfectly suited for government work. The Internet Services Testbed Project provided the opportunity for seven government agencies in New York to develop prototype Web sites in anticipation of serving constituents better. Agency staff were also stakeholders in providing a platform for internal information exchange and links to central agency databases.

The project report describes the research and practical tools the project generated. The tools include a stakeholder analysis, the strategic framework, an organizational issues questionnaire, the cost & performance model, technology awareness tool, and evaluation instruments.

The anytime, anywhere character of the Internet allows government information and services to be more available to more people. These guidelines present principles to help government agencies in New York State decide how best to design, manage, and market Web services.

The Internet can help government agencies communicate with the public, with businesses, and with one another. The anytime, anywhere character of the Internet allows government information and services to be more available to more people with greater convenience and lower cost to customers. These guidelines were created to help government organizations in New York State achieve these benefits at reasonable cost and effort.

These guidelines focus on one major aspect of the Internet: the World Wide Web (WWW or Web) which has emerged as an interconnected network of information sources located all around the world. These guidelines present principles to help government agencies in NYS decide how best to design, manage, and market Web services. There are many excellent electronic and print resources that deal with the technologies of the Web. We did not set out to create another one. Instead, we emphasize important topics that are often neglected: setting service objectives and policies, organizing and managing staff and other resources, assessing costs and effectiveness.

Over the past six years, the New York State (NYS) Office of Children and Family Services (OCFS) has invested in a mobile technology strategy to support child protective services (CPS) work. This report presents results from a multi-year assessment on how the use of mobility technology has affected CPS casework. Findings suggest that laptop use has transformed on-call work processes, provided caseworkers with access to critical information while away from the office, and enabled an immersive community experience for caseworkers. These results have also led to modest, but meaningful improvements in productivity. The report also outlines elements of supportive mobile environments and offers recommendations for improving OCFS' mobile technology strategy.

Over the past six years, the New York State (NYS) Office of Children and Family Services (OCFS) has invested in a mobile technology strategy to support child protective services (CPS) work. This report presents results from a multi-year assessment on how the use of mobility technology has affected CPS casework. Findings suggest that laptop use has transformed on-call work processes, provided caseworkers with access to critical information while away from the office, and enabled an immersive community experience for caseworkers. These results have also led to modest, but meaningful improvements in productivity. The report also outlines elements of supportive mobile environments and offers recommendations for improving OCFS' mobile technology strategy.

This current practices study contributes to a community-wide knowledge building effort by examining the factors that influenced the success of selected justice information integration initiatives.

This current practices study contributes to a community-wide knowledge building effort by examining the factors that influenced the success of selected justice information integration initiatives.

The purpose of this paper is to describe a dynamic theory of the socio-technical processes involved in the definition of an Integration Information problem in New York State (NYS). In April 2003, the Criminal Justice Information Technology (CJIT) group of NYS was tasked with developing a framework to give users of criminal justice data and information systems “one-stop shopping” access to information needed to accomplish their mission. CJIT collaborated with the Center for Technology in Government (CTG) for an eight-month period during 2003 to accomplish this task. The theory consists of a system dynamics model for understanding the dynamics of the collaboration involved in the problem definition stage of a project. The model was developed in facilitated group modeling sessions with the CTG team. The model is capable to generate interesting scenarios that show the importance of social accumulations in project management. Moreover, the model illustrates a powerful way to use modeling and simulation as theory-building tools.

The purpose of this paper is to describe a dynamic theory of the socio-technical processes involved in the definition of an Integration Information problem in New York State (NYS). In April 2003, the Criminal Justice Information Technology (CJIT) group of NYS was tasked with developing a framework to give users of criminal justice data and information systems “one-stop shopping” access to information needed to accomplish their mission. CJIT collaborated with the Center for Technology in Government (CTG) for an eight-month period during 2003 to accomplish this task. The theory consists of a system dynamics model for understanding the dynamics of the collaboration involved in the problem definition stage of a project. The model was developed in facilitated group modeling sessions with the CTG team. The model is capable to generate interesting scenarios that show the importance of social accumulations in project management. Moreover, the model illustrates a powerful way to use modeling and simulation as theory-building tools.

Over the last fifteen years, the role of IT in state government has grown in prominence, which has drawn attention to how IT is governed at the state level. This report reviews enterprise IT governance arrangements in thirteen states (California, Florida, Georgia, Kansas, Kentucky, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Texas, and Virginia). These states were selected to create a diverse set of examples and to gain a broad picture of state enterprise IT governance efforts in the United States. There are a total of five data summaries included within the report. First is a high-level comparison of state enterprise IT governance elements. This comparison is followed by a more detailed overview of three enterprise IT governance components: state CIO Councils, state executive IT boards, and budgetary authority for IT decisions. Finally, the report concludes with in-depth profiles and models of state enterprise IT governance arrangements in each of the thirteen states. Together, these resources provide one of the most comprehensive reviews of public sector IT governance currently available.

Over the last fifteen years, the role of IT in state government has grown in prominence, which has drawn attention to how IT is governed at the state level. This report reviews enterprise IT governance arrangements in thirteen states (California, Florida, Georgia, Kansas, Kentucky, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Texas, and Virginia). These states were selected to create a diverse set of examples and to gain a broad picture of state enterprise IT governance efforts in the United States. There are a total of five data summaries included within the report. First is a high-level comparison of state enterprise IT governance elements. This comparison is followed by a more detailed overview of three enterprise IT governance components: state CIO Councils, state executive IT boards, and budgetary authority for IT decisions. Finally, the report concludes with in-depth profiles and models of state enterprise IT governance arrangements in each of the thirteen states. Together, these resources provide one of the most comprehensive reviews of public sector IT governance currently available.

This current practices research report identifies and describes exemplary practices in providing electronic access to information.

This current practices research report identifies and describes exemplary practices in providing electronic access to information. It includes an examination of the professional academic literature, a review of Web-based resources, and a study of best practices in selected organizations.

In an increasingly interconnected world, neither the public nor the private sector can claim sole stewardship of the critical infrastructure. These interdependencies require new kinds of coordination in a variety of areas, particularly in response to incidents that threaten the stability of the critical infrastructure. Events such as the World Trade Center attacks and Hurricane Katrina have generated new discussions among stakeholders about the coordination necessary to ensure continuity of operation of the critical infrastructure.

In an increasingly interconnected world, neither the public nor the private sector can claim sole stewardship of the critical infrastructure. These interdependencies require new kinds of coordination in a variety of areas, particularly in response to incidents that threaten the stability of the critical infrastructure. Events such as the World Trade Center attacks and Hurricane Katrina have generated new discussions among stakeholders about the coordination necessary to ensure continuity of operation of the critical infrastructure.

In 2006 the New York State Department of Public Service (DPS), as a key actor in the national and regional telecommunications community, began to engage in discussions with other key actors about regional coordination of telecommunications incident response. Encouraged by interest from stakeholders, DPS partnered with the Center for Technology in Government (CTG) to organize a preliminary discussion among members of the regional telecommunications community.

CTG brought together representatives of telecommunications providers, state emergency management agencies, federal communications agencies, state regulatory authorities, state departments of homeland security, state cybersecurity and the financial sector on March 28, 2007 for a one-day workshop. The workshop participants engaged in discussions about the value proposition of coordinated response capability, explored varying perspectives on the current state of affairs, brainstormed strategies for increasing regional response capability, and concluded the session by producing a set of five recommendations for next steps in exploring regional coordination efforts.

Public managers confront tangled problems every day across all policy domains and levels of government, and they need to be ready to deal with them through networked forms of engagement and action. Knowledge networking—the ability to create public sector knowledge networks (PSKNs) suitable for addressing these problems—requires a certain set of skills and attitudes, as well as interpersonal and other kinds of trust. Network development processes that emphasize early, open dialogue and examination of assumptions and expectations do better than those that rush forward with a fixed IT solution in mind. Those that adapt and learn from experience are more likely to succeed in achieving their substantive project and networking goals. Finally, to be sustainable as organizational forms, knowledge networks need some legal foundation, access to resources, supportive policies, and innovative forms of leadership.

Public Administrative Review's Theory to Practice features exchanges among scholars and practitioners assessing what prominent theories and research in their areas of expertise have to say about the challenges, choices, and opportunities facing public administration today. This article summarizes 15 years of CTG research into the challenges of cross-boundary knowledge and information sharing in government.

Public managers confront tangled problems every day across all policy domains and levels of government, and they need to be ready to deal with them through networked forms of engagement and action. Knowledge networking—the ability to create public sector knowledge networks (PSKNs) suitable for addressing these problems—requires a certain set of skills and attitudes, as well as interpersonal and other kinds of trust. Network development processes that emphasize early, open dialogue and examination of assumptions and expectations do better than those that rush forward with a fixed IT solution in mind. Those that adapt and learn from experience are more likely to succeed in achieving their substantive project and networking goals. Finally, to be sustainable as organizational forms, knowledge networks need some legal foundation, access to resources, supportive policies, and innovative forms of leadership.

Sharing and integrating knowledge and information in multiorganizational settings clearly involves complex socio-technical interactions embodied in work processes, organizational forms, and institutional contexts. These are challenges of governance as well as issues for administration. They have implications for efficiency, performance, and public value that are ripe for multidisciplinary investigation, as well as for usefully linking research and practice. The challenge to public managers is to build institutional, managerial, and professional capabilities to engage cross-boundary, knowledge-intensive problems whenever they appear.

An expanded version of this article, along with commentary and an opportunity to contribute to the online discussion, can be found on the PAR Web site.

Government enterprises face many performance challenges that can be addressed more successfully through better information-sharing initiatives. Regardless of the size and complexity of these initiatives, they are all made less challenging when participating organizations have a joint action plan that outlines what information sharing is necessary to be successful and what investments in capability must be made to close the gaps between capability required and capability available. Decisions to invest in information-sharing initiatives must be grounded in such an action plan. This toolkit is designed for government professionals tasked with planning and implementing initiatives that rely on effective information-sharing. It provides a process for assessing where capabilities for information-sharing exist and where they must be developed to achieve targeted goals. Assessment results provide a basis for action planning to fill capability gaps.

Government enterprises face many performance challenges that can be addressed more successfully through better information-sharing initiatives. Regardless of the size and complexity of these initiatives, they are all made less challenging when participating organizations have a joint action plan that outlines what information sharing is necessary to be successful and what investments in capability must be made to close the gaps between capability required and capability available. Decisions to invest in information-sharing initiatives must be grounded in such an action plan. This toolkit is designed for government professionals tasked with planning and implementing initiatives that rely on effective information-sharing. It provides a process for assessing where capabilities for information-sharing exist and where they must be developed to achieve targeted goals. Assessment results provide a basis for action planning to fill capability gaps.

Download Dimension Worksheets>>

Information technology tools and applications are supporting all types of government work. This report presents the results of a series of prototyping experiments conducted by CTG and state agencies on custom workflow, project management, document management, and meeting support systems using groupware tools.

In recent years, both government and business have been experimenting with team-based organizations and work assignments organized around a complete service or administrative process. Since nearly every service follows an implicit order of action steps and information flow, government agencies have become increasingly interested in technologies to support group functioning and process-oriented operations.

This report presents the results of a series of prototyping experiments conducted by CTG and state agencies on custom workflow, project management, document management, and meeting support systems using groupware tools.

Research into what organizations did in the midst of the World Trade Center crises and response provides valuable lessons for improving crisis response and emergency management and planning. Equally important, the lessons reveal that interdependencies of human, organizational, and technological resources may benefit overall government operations in normal times.

Research into what organizations did in the midst of the World Trade Center crises and response provides valuable lessons for improving crisis response and emergency management and planning. Equally important, the lessons reveal that interdependencies of human, organizational, and technological resources may benefit overall government operations in normal times.

Insider's Guide to Using Information in Government
Wed, 01 Nov 2000 (Online Resource)
Every day, the people inside government use information to develop policies, make decisions, evaluate programs, and deliver services. This Web resource draws from real agency experiences to provide a practical resource for government professionals who use information to do their jobs.

Every day, the people inside government use information to develop policies, make decisions, evaluate programs, and deliver services. The Insider's Guide to Using Information in Government draws from real agency experiences to provide a practical resource for government professionals. It covers six related topics (strategy, policy, data, costs, skills, and technology) and illustrates them with stories of state and local agency projects ranging in focus from internal knowledge sharing to statewide program evaluation.

This executive briefing draws from real agency experience to provide a practical resource for the use of information by government professionals.

Every day, the people inside government use information to develop policies, make decisions, evaluate programs, and deliver services. The Insider's Guide to Using Information in Government draws from real agency experiences to provide a practical resource for government professionals. It covers six related topics (strategy, policy, data, costs, skills, and technology) and illustrates them with stories of state and local agency projects ranging in focus from internal knowledge sharing to statewide program evaluation.

This paper provides the practical perspective of studying government information technology issues. It is one of two papers that served as the background for discussions at an applied research workshop hosted by CTG in October 1997.

Public and private sector organizations alike are striving to improve their productivity and effectiveness by rethinking missions, reengineering processes, and implementing information technology (IT) solutions. Much work is being conducted in university settings and research centers to support the innovative use of IT to improve government services and operations.

The value of research to practice reflects the fit between the topics that interest researchers and their funders and the problems that practitioners are trying to solve. It also reflects the effectiveness with which knowledge is transferred between the two domains.

This paper provides the practical perspective of studying government information technology issues. It is one of two papers that served as the background for discussions at an applied research workshop hosted by CTG in October 1997.

This paper provides the research perspective of studying government information technology issues. It is one of two papers that served as the background for discussions at an applied research workshop hosted by CTG in October 1997.

Public and private sector organizations alike are striving to improve their productivity and effectiveness by rethinking missions, reengineering processes, and implementing information technology (IT) solutions. Much work is being conducted in university settings and other research centers to support the innovative use of IT to improve government services and operations.

The value of research to practice reflects the fit between the topics that interest researchers and their funders and the problems that practitioners are trying to solve. It also reflects the effectiveness with which knowledge is transferred between the two domains.

This paper provides the research perspective of studying government information technology issues. It is one of two papers that served as the background for discussions at an applied research workshop hosted by CTG in October 1997.

The Electronic Commons: a community led natural resource knowledge portal was a collaborative program developed by the Wood Education and Resource Center of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Northeastern Area States, and Northern Initiatives. The program was designed to increase understanding of the potential benefits of and challenges to using information technology for communication and knowledge sharing among natural-resource professionals and volunteer organizations, schools and communities neighboring national forests, as well as individuals interested in learning about natural-resource management. Eight project teams were funded to explore technology-based strategies such as Web sites and Webinars as tools for sharing knowledge on natural-resource topics of concern to their communities and to build communities of practice.

The Electronic Commons: a community led natural resource knowledge portal was a collaborative program developed by the Wood Education and Resource Center of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Northeastern Area States, and Northern Initiatives. Eight project teams were funded to explore technology-based strategies such as Web sites and Webinars as tools for sharing knowledge on natural-resource topics of concern to their communities and to build communities of practice.This toolkit is the product of a ninth project funded through the Electronic Commons Program to produce a guidance document for future similar efforts undertaken in the natural resources community.

An ala carte approach to the Toolkit

This toolkit was written for two primary audiences – the first is project managers engaged in information technology-based innovations in the public and not-for-profit sectors and the second is funding agencies. While the full toolkit has value to both audiences, specific sections may be more suited to certain readers as a starting place.

Program or Project Managers

. . . managing multi-organizational, geographically separated teams, might start at: . . . selecting technology to support a multi-organizational, geographically separate team, might start at:
  • Chapter 4 subsection, titled “Choosing the right technology for your teamwork — virtual or otherwise,” which provides guidance to project managers on the kinds of questions a project manager should have the answers to before selecting technology to support communication and collaboration among team members.
  • Appendix B, which identifies the technologies used in the eight projects and summarizes the related experiences of each team in selecting and using technology.
. . . selecting technology for sharing knowledge among geographically dispersed audiences, might start at: . . . writing a grant proposal for technology-based knowledge sharing innovations, might start at:
  • Chapter 6, which provides guidance on the grant proposal process collected from the eight grantees.
Funders
. . . awarding small grants aimed at technological innovation in the non-for-profit sector, might start at:
  • Chapter 2, Assessing Impact, which highlights the value delivered to the natural resources community by the eight projects.
  • Chapter 3, Environmental Complexity, which presents observations about the obstacles not-for-profit agencies face when engaging in innovation, technology or otherwise, and provides guidance to assist project teams in overcoming these challenges.
  • Chapter 6 provides additional advice to funders on creating a set of conditions to increase the likelihood that funds provided to project teams will generate the expected outcome.
The experience of September 11th was not an experience that government sustained by itself. Rather, it was an experience that crossed the public, private and nonprofit sectors and holds lessons for organizations of all kinds and sizes. In June 2004, the Center for Technology in Government (CTG) at the University at Albany, SUNY, put together a panel that represented these different perspectives.

The experience of September 11th was not an experience that government sustained by itself. Rather, it was an experience that crossed the public, private and nonprofit sectors and holds lessons for organizations of all kinds and sizes. In June 2004, the Center for Technology in Government (CTG) at the University at Albany, SUNY, put together a panel that represented these different perspectives.

The panel focused on ways in which the World Trade Center experience has, should, or might influence all organizations in what we now call “normal times.”

The following is an overview and an abridged transcipt of the panel discussion.

IT innovation is risky business in every organization. In the complex public sector environment, these risks are even greater. This handbook is designed to help any government manager evaluate IT innovations before deciding (with greater confidence) to make a significant investment.

Why evaluate information technology (IT) choices? Because IT innovation is risky business in every organization. The public policy choices and public management processes that are part of government make it an especially difficult environment for IT managers. These layers of complexity present a daunting challenge to public managers who are responsible for choosing, funding, and building IT innovations.

Government managers need to evaluate IT choices because they are among the most complex and expensive decisions they are expected to make.

There are three ways to mitigate the risks inherent in these complex decisions: thoroughly understand the problem to be solved and its context, identify and test possible solutions to the problem, evaluate the results of those tests against your service and performance goals. This handbook is designed to help any government manager follow a well-tested methodology for evaluating IT innovations before deciding (with greater confidence) to make a significant investment.

NYS's Office of Children and Family Services (OCFS) and the Center for Technology in Government (CTG) partnered to conduct an extended study of the use of connected laptops in child protective services (CPS). Previous pilot and demonstration assessments established a solid foundation of information to support a reasonably clear picture of the short term impacts of deploying and using laptops in CPS work. This assessment allowed a longer time period for data collection (8-10 months) and provided an opportunity to learn more about how laptops are integrated into CPS work, including examining mobility, productivity and satisfaction. This study also examines the long-term impacts and conditions necessary to maximize current and future mobile technology investments in NYS's child protective services.

NYS's Office of Children and Family Services (OCFS) and the Center for Technology in Government (CTG) partnered to conduct an extended study of the use of connected laptops in child protective services (CPS). Previous pilot and demonstration assessments established a solid foundation of information to support a reasonably clear picture of the short term impacts of deploying and using laptops in CPS work. This assessment allowed a longer time period for data collection (8-10 months) and provided an opportunity to learn more about how laptops are integrated into CPS work, including examining mobility, productivity and satisfaction. This study also examines the long-term impacts and conditions necessary to maximize current and future mobile technology investments in NYS's child protective services.

Interorganizational networks are increasingly the subject of both theoretical and empirical research in sociology, economics, organizational behavior, and public and business management. While the most common network concepts and studies have focused on multi-organizational forms of production, “network” has also emerged as a way to describe how organizations share and integrate knowledge and information. This paper focuses on a type of network that is increasingly important in public affairs, but largely unaccounted for in the extant literature – the public sector knowledge network. The paper synthesizes and augments the exiting literature to include public sector knowledge networks. It then identifies performance measures that can be used to evaluate them at the network, organizational, and individual levels of analysis and identifies critical success factors that pertain to each level.

CTG Working Paper No. 03-2008

Interorganizational networks are increasingly the subject of both theoretical and empirical research in sociology, economics, organizational behavior, and public and business management. While the most common network concepts and studies have focused on multi-organizational forms of production, “network” has also emerged as a way to describe how organizations share and integrate knowledge and information. This paper focuses on a type of network that is increasingly important in public affairs, but largely unaccounted for in the extant literature – the public sector knowledge network. The paper synthesizes and augments the exiting literature to include public sector knowledge networks. It then identifies performance measures that can be used to evaluate them at the network, organizational, and individual levels of analysis and identifies critical success factors that pertain to each level.

Bringing an array of geographic information into a central system provides increased value to users, but coordinating that presents considerable challenges. This report describes how the New York State GIS Coordination Program was initiated and developed. It looks at the problems encountered and solutions tried, and focuses on data sharing and public-private sector partnerships.

The NYS Geographic Information System (GIS) Coordination Program was designed and implemented through the collaboration of governments and private entities throughout the State. This case study presents this innovative initiative as a model for data sharing and public-private sector partnerships. The report describes in detail how the GIS Coordination Program was initiated and developed, looking at the role of the different collaborators as well as the problems encountered and solutions tried. An evaluation of the costs and benefits of the project is also included, as well as a reflection on the remaining problems that need to be tackled in the coming years.

The Office of the New York State Comptroller decided to conduct an extensive stakeholder needs analysis before making any decisions about how to design and develop a next generation Central Accounting System (CAS). CTG worked with the agency on this project, and developed a set of recommendations for next steps in devising a plan for the CAS.

The Office of the New York State Comptroller recognized the need to design and develop a next generation Central Accounting System (CAS), but first decided to define its stakeholders and conduct a stakeholder needs analysis before making any decisions. This project was conducted by CTG in partnership with a team from the Comptroller's Office as part of the Using Information in Government (UIG) program. The report summarizes the information gathered from system users in 42 state agencies, and presents a set of recommendations for next steps in developing a plan for the CAS.

Information technology (IT) workforce issues have been a concern in New York State since the 1980s and were designated high priority areas in the 2004 and 2005 New York State Enterprise Information Technology Strategic Plans. As a result, in early 2005, the CIO Council HR Committee organized a partnership of state agencies, labor unions, and the Center for Technology in Government (CTG) to help design and administer two surveys. This report provides the key findings of the IT workforce skills assessment surveys administered during March and April 2006; involving nearly 5,000 IT professionals employed in state agencies, authorities, and boards.

Information technology (IT) workforce issues have been a concern in New York State since the 1980s and were designated high priority areas in the 2004 and 2005 New York State Enterprise Information Technology Strategic Plans. As a result, in early 2005, the CIO Council HR Committee organized a partnership of state agencies, labor unions, and the Center for Technology in Government (CTG) to help design and administer two surveys. This report provides the key findings of the IT workforce skills assessment surveys administered during March and April 2006; involving nearly 5,000 IT professionals employed in state agencies, authorities, and boards.

The goal of this assessment is to gather information to help New York State better meet the training and development needs of its IT professionals, and to identify future needs for IT skills. As a result, the State CIO Council Human Resources Committee and its subgroups generated recommendations for next steps and action plans to enhance professional development and skill proficiency for the entire IT workforce.

This online demonstration shows the features and functions of the New York State-Local Internet Gateway Prototype. The Prototype was built to identify, demonstrate, and evaluate key factors associated with the design, development, and deployment of a single point of contact for G2G work among state and local governments in New York State.

For over a decade, the simplicity, portability, and flexibility of XML have made it the accepted standard for formatting and sharing data via web services and service-oriented architecture (SOA). However, XML data that is easily transferred across machines and applications is not as easily stored and processed within those same machines and applications. As a result, the XML data is typically transformed into non-XML formats better suited for use within databases and applications. This transformation step adds a layer of complexity to the process.

The basic assumption of the open data movement is that more intensive and creative use of information and technology can improve policy-making and generate new forms of public and economic value. Open data initiatives are focusing on education, public health, transportation, environmental stewardship, economic development, and many other areas. Ironically, this information is often treated as a black box in the open data movement. Stakeholders, analytical techniques, and technology tools all receive considerable attention, but the information itself is often seen as a given, used uncritically and trusted without examination. However, the very kind of data that is now being released as “open data” was actually collected or created for other purposes. It has undeniable potential value, but it also contains substantial risks for validity, relevance, and trust.

Open Government Portfolio Public Value Assessment Tool
Fri, 15 Apr 2011 (Online Resource)
The Open Government Portfolio Public Value Assessment Tool (PVAT) offers government leaders with an approach to making better informed decisions about their portfolio of open government initiatives. This tool provides a structured way to assess the public value of an initiative so that an agency can review the expected public value across their entire portfolio of open government initiatives. The information generated from using this tool can then support decisions about the mix of initiatives in a portfolio and how to adjust the mix to enhance the agency's public value

The Open Government Portfolio Public Value Assessment Tool (PVAT) offers government leaders with an approach to making better informed decisions about their portfolio of open government initiatives. This tool provides a structured way to assess the public value of an initiative so that an agency can review the expected public value across their entire portfolio of open government initiatives. The information generated from using this tool can then support decisions about the mix of initiatives in a portfolio and how to adjust the mix to enhance the agency's public value

This Guide was originally published under the title of Opening Gateways: A Practical Guide for Designing Electronic Records Access Programs in 2000 and revised in 2002. Since it was issued, technological advances have given us a much broader array of tools and approaches to providing access to information. These advances have created a broader and in some ways more sophisticated community of potential users and stakeholders whose expectations of ease of access and immediacy of information have grown exponentially. These changes, combined with a social and political environment that demands public sector entities be more open and transparent in their operations, have put increased pressures on government to provide access to more and better information through readily accessible means such as the Internet.

This guide is designed to help government agencies develop affordable, manageable, and effective information access programs. Given the changing technological and social environment, the type of planning processes facilitated by this Guide are more relevant than ever. The revisions have focused on updating many of the examples provided and language used as well as including an expanded discussion of program models available due to technological advances.

This Guide was originally published under the title of Opening Gateways: A Practical Guide for Designing Electronic Records Access Programs in 2000 and revised in 2002. Since it was issued, technological advances have given us a much broader array of tools and approaches to providing access to information. These advances have created a broader and in some ways more sophisticated community of potential users and stakeholders whose expectations of ease of access and immediacy of information have grown exponentially. These changes, combined with a social and political environment that demands public sector entities be more open and transparent in their operations, have put increased pressures on government to provide access to more and better information through readily accessible means such as the Internet.

This guide is designed to help government agencies develop affordable, manageable, and effective information access programs. Given the changing technological and social environment, the type of planning processes facilitated by this Guide are more relevant than ever. The revisions have focused on updating many of the examples provided and language used as well as including an expanded discussion of program models available due to technological advances.

Opening Gateways: The Guide and Online Workbench
Sat, 01 Dec 2003 (Online Resource)
The online workbench is provided as a companion piece to Opening Gateways: A Practical Guide for Designing Electronic Records Access Programs. It is an interactive version of the Guide enhanced with features that support groups of people as they collaborate on the development of electronic records programs.

The growing demand for information to be available in electronic form and for direct access to this information is changing the design and management of electronic information access programs. Programs are:

  • Increasingly focused on electronic rather than paper as the format desired by users.
  • Shifting from staff-supported access models to direct-user access models, now made possible over the Web.
Making a successful transition to increasingly user- and usage-focused programs requires careful assessment of any desired program in terms of:
  • the users
  • the uses
  • the content
  • the operation
  • the cost of a desired program.
This shift often requires program managers; the content experts, to join traditional information access professionals in a new way of working.

The Opening Gateways Guide and Workbench support this new way of working; they guide program managers and information access professionals in the creation of electronic information access programs that are effective, manageable, and affordable. They provide a framework for a design team to account for the specifics of the environment within which a program will exist.

Taking the environment into account in the design of electronic information access programs is a human process. The Gateways Guide and Workbench are not intended to replace that process, but to support it through a cycle of individual effort, group discussion, and integration of the best ideas from the group. This process depends on project managers who are skilled at cultivating individual commitment and group process and participants who have a stake in the outcome. The Workbench supports this process by organizing and sharing the information needed to reach a sound design. Together, the Guide and the Workbench provide a process and an analytical framework to ensure that a design team is able to focus on the complexity of information access program design.

The Opening Gateways Guide is a paper and a web based document that presents a strategy for designing electronic information access programs. The Guide presents a set of analytical tools to help groups of people as they collaborate on the design of electronic records access programs.

The Gateways Online Workbench is provided as a companion piece to the Guide. It is an interactive version of the Guide enhanced with features that support groups of people as they collaborate on the development of electronic information access programs. The Workbench design supports this group process by allowing multiple users to capture individual ideas and to contribute to group efforts through the Workbench’s collaboration features.

This report provides a baseline for state government digital information preservation capabilities and activities. It includes an analysis of the results across states and territories and presents several observations on the current digital preservation environment based on CTG’s 2006 State Government Digital Information Preservation Survey.

Partnerships have emerged as the most viable strategy for securing the resources necessary for preserving state government digital information. Whether these partnerships span units within a single agency or multiple state and local governments and in some cases the federal government, their development requires knowledge of capabilities and priorities to be shared among potential partners. This report provides the baseline knowledge necessary to launch these critical partnership development efforts. Baseline data on state government digital information preservation capabilities and activities was collected in five key areas:
  1. Institutional Roles and Responsibilities
  2. State Government Digital Information Preservation Activities
  3. Training Needs for Digital Preservation
  4. State Government Digital Information Currently At-Risk
  5. Engagement with Enterprise Architecture
Six observations about the challenges facing state government digital preservation initiatives emerged from the baseline data:
  1. Capability for preserving state government digital information is low.
  2. There is no consistent approach to addressing “at-risk” information.
  3. Authority for setting standards and responsibility for providing digital preservation services is dispersed.
  4. Executive, legislative, and judicial agencies operate parallel digital preservation efforts.
  5. Digital preservation and Enterprise Architecture initiatives are not well-connected.
  6. Efforts to develop strategic digital preservation programs are hampered by problem focused practices and funding and staffing models.
A complementary resource to this baseline reports enables you to review the individual profiles from the responding units within the states/territories.
>> State Government Digital Preservation Profiles.

Organizations spend millions of dollars putting information together in data warehouses, but as many as 50 to 80 percent of those projects fail. This report, which summarizes the fourth seminar in the UIG Seminar Series, highlights the lessons learned from the creation of the prototype Homeless Information Management System.

The Center for Technology in Government (CTG), through the Using Information in Government (UIG) program, has worked with New York State agency project teams and partners from the public, private, and academic sectors to identify benefits and strategies for integrating and using information for program planning, evaluation, and decision making. The policy, management, and technology issues identified through our work with agency teams were shared with the public in a series of seminars focused on increasing the value of information to government programs. This report summarizes the presentations given at the fourth session of the Using Information in Government Seminar Series, "Putting Information Together: Building Integrated Data Repositories," which was held on February 9, 2000 at the University at Albany/SUNY.

In order to implement the state's new annual reassessment program, the New York State Office of Real Property Services set out to identify the needs of the local assessment community. CTG worked with this agency on the project, and produced a report that presents a collaboratively developed set of recommendations for moving the Annual Reassessment Program forward.

In order to implement the state's new annual reassessment program, the New York State Office of Real Property Services (ORPS) set out to identify the needs of the local assessment community. This project was conducted by CTG in partnership with a team from ORPS as part of the Using Information in Government (UIG) program. This report presents a set of recommendations that were collaboratively developed by ORPS and members of the assessment community.

Field testing a prototype is critical to gauge its value for users. This report describes the results of the field test of a prototype decision support tool developed to help emergency physicians conduct psychiatric assessments.

This project represented one approach to improve emergency psychiatric services by reducing the number of inappropriate admissions, and by avoiding inappropriate releases, which can result in violent episodes in the community. This report describes the field test conducted with practicing clinicians, including the advantages and disadvantages that clinicians found with the decision support system. Recommendations made to the Office of Mental Health at the conclusion of the project are elaborated on here. Details of the prototype system are given and screen display images printed in the report.

Public and private sector organizations recognize the importance of information sharing as a way to improve planning and increase productivity. Because of this trend, the use of multiple data sources for enterprise level planning and decision making has become even more important. This paper identifies current research and practical experiences in the use of multiple data sources to support performance measurement, strategic planning, and interorganizational business processes.

Information sharing has become a priority among organizations looking to increase productivity and improve planning. Along with this emerging reliance on information sharing comes more interest in the use of multiple data sources for enterprise level planning and decision making. This paper identifies current research and outlines practical experiences in the use of multiple data sources to support performance measurement, strategic planning, and interorganizational business processes. In addition, a series of cases are examined to illustrate the benefits, issues, methods, and results of data source integration efforts in the same organization and across multiple organizations. The objective of this research is to set the stage for the development of a methodology for integrating multiple data sources.

A prototype voice response system was designed to improve the way business permit inquiries were handled by the New York State Office of Regulatory and Management Assistance. This report presents the results of testing that prototype system.

This report presents the results of the Center for Technology in Government’s formal efforts to evaluate a New York State Office of Regulatory and Management Assistance (ORMA) prototype voice response system for automated business permit information.

This report has four specific objectives: (1) to review the original research objectives of the ORMA project as it was proposed by ORMA; (2) to document how those original and rather narrowly focused research objectives were eventually expanded to include a broader set of questions; (3) to summarize a multi-method research approach that has been used by CTG to evaluate this entire project; and (4) to present answers to each of the research questions posed. These answers draw from threads of investigation taken from the several methods that tested the overall research approach.

Service New Brunswick was launched in a time of high pressure from citizens in New Brunswick, Canada for improved service delivery. Today it serves the province through its award winning service delivery model, and also and maybe more importantly in the long run, through its innovations in economic development.

Service New Brunswick was launched in a time of high pressure from citizens in New Brunswick, Canada for improved service delivery. Today it serves the province through its award winning service delivery model, and also and maybe more importantly in the long run, through its innovations in economic development.

This document reports on a project conducted by CTG on behalf of the New York State Department of Correctional Services (NYS DOCS) to explore the likely benefits and associated costs of an Electronic Health Record (EHR) for NYS DOCS. The project, moving towards an electronic health record for NYS DOCS, was initiated in the summer of 2005 by the former New York State Department of Correctional Services Commissioner, Glenn Goord.

This document reports on a project conducted by CTG on behalf of the New York State Department of Correctional Services (NYS DOCS) to explore the likely benefits and associated costs of an Electronic Health Record (EHR) for NYS DOCS. The project, moving towards an electronic health record for NYS DOCS, was initiated in the summer of 2005 by the former New York State Department of Correctional Services Commissioner, Glenn Goord.

The project report outlines the source of many of the environmental and organizational challenges facing NYS DOCS in the transition to an EHR. The benefits of an EHR both generally and in a correctional context are introduced together with barriers to implementation at NYS DOCS found in the environmental analysis. In addition, a set of recommendations was designed to assist NYS DOCS in their efforts to fully realize the benefits of an EHR as well as a brief discussion of related cost estimation issues. Since the release of the report, NYS DOCs has taken positive developments towards their goal, an update of which is now included in the report.

This document reports on a project conducted by CTG on behalf of the New York State Department of Correctional Services (NYS DOCS) to explore the likely benefits and associated costs of an Electronic Health Record (EHR) for NYS DOCS. The project, moving towards an electronic health record for NYS DOCS, was initiated in the summer of 2005 by the former New York State Department of Correctional Services Commissioner, Glenn Goord.

This document reports on a project conducted by CTG on behalf of the New York State Department of Correctional Services (NYS DOCS) to explore the likely benefits and associated costs of an Electronic Health Record (EHR) for NYS DOCS. The project, moving towards an electronic health record for NYS DOCS, was initiated in the summer of 2005 by the former New York State Department of Correctional Services Commissioner, Glenn Goord.

The project report outlines the source of many of the environmental and organizational challenges facing NYS DOCS in the transition to an EHR. The benefits of an EHR both generally and in a correctional context are introduced together with barriers to implementation at NYS DOCS found in the environmental analysis. In addition, a set of recommendations was designed to assist NYS DOCS in their efforts to fully realize the benefits of an EHR as well as a brief discussion of related cost estimation issues. Since the release of the report, NYS DOCs has taken positive developments towards their goal, an update of which is now included in the report.

The justice enterprise faces many performance challenges that can be addressed more successfully through better information-sharing initiatives.This toolkit is designed for justice professionals to use when considering or planning for a justice information-sharing initiative.

The justice enterprise faces many performance challenges that can be addressed more successfully through better information-sharing initiatives. These challenges differ widely in their scope and complexity. Regardless of their size, all these initiatives are made less difficult when participating organizations have high levels of information-sharing capability. Therefore, decisions to invest in informationsharing initiatives must be grounded in a full understanding of the ability of those involved to identify and fill the gaps between current and required capability.

This toolkit is designed for justice professionals to use when considering or planning for a justice information-sharing initiative. It provides a process for assessing where capability for informationsharing exists and where it must be developed in order to achieve public safety goals. Assessment results provide a basis for action planning to fill capability gaps both within and across organizations.

This is a self-assessment tool, based on the idea that the persons involved in an information-sharing initiative are best equipped, by their knowledge and experience, to make judgments and supply evidence about these capabilities. The toolkit was designed to facilitate discussion within individual organizations as well as across organizations involved in an information-sharing initiative.

The New York State Geographic Information System (GIS) Clearinghouse Cooperative project was undertaken to show the extent to which spatial data needs overlap among key policy and applications areas. This report demonstrates how data sharing strategies can reduce the cost and increase the value of GIS.

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) offer unique opportunities to analyze and compare disparate types of information. They are opening up new opportunities to deliver both information and services. The value of GIS and spatial data can be seen most dramatically in applications that promote economic development, public health and safety, and environmental quality.

The New York State GIS Cooperative project, initiated by the NYS Department of Environmental Conservation, demonstrated the depth and variety of existing human, technical, and data resources in the state. This report presents the results of that project. It shows the extent to which spatial data needs overlap among key policy and applications areas. It examines how data sharing strategies can reduce the cost and increase the value of GIS.

Information technology plays a crucial role in the public sector, and has the potential to transform the way government works. This report provides a set of recommendations for the National Science Foundation to design its Digital Government Research Program to help support that transformation.

Information technology has been a vital component of government operations for decades. It plays a crucial role in public sector administration, decision-making, and service delivery in the next millennium. The technology tools we have today, such as digital communications and advanced networking, are already transforming some areas of government. In an effort to expand this trend of moving government toward the promise of transformed public services, the National Science Foundation (NSF) established the Digital Government Program. The program fosters connections between government information service providers and research communities, seeks innovative research to improve agency, interagency, and intergovernmental operations, and advocates enhanced interactions between citizens and government.

As a grantee of the program, CTG held a multidisciplinary workshop in October 1998 to elicit a number of pertinent recommendations for the Digital Government Program. This report is based on that workshop and outlines steps NSF can take to help develop a digital government for the next millennium.

This Web-based resource provides profiles of state government digital information preservation efforts within the United States based on the information collected from the 2006 State Government Digital Information Preservation Survey. The profiles are organized by state or territory and the library, archives, and records management units that were represented in the survey response.

State libraries and archives have traditionally managed, preserved, and provided access to significant government information in paper and other traditional formats. More and more, however, this information is created in digital form. Much of it has short-term value, but a considerable fraction must remain available for many years, in some cases, permanently. Unfortunately, states are finding their current preservation capabilities do not extend from paper to digital formats. All signs point to continued growth in the volume and complexity of this information yet library, archives and records management professionals are hampered in their efforts to respond to this growth by a host of resource gaps. These gaps include a lack of comprehensive program strategies, personnel and funding as well as a lack of technology infrastructure and appropriate and sufficient skills.

With the assistance of an expert panel representing both practitioners and consumers of mental health services, a computer-assisted decision model was developed to support psychiatric assessments in emergency rooms.

An inappropriate decision to admit or discharge a psychiatric patient from an emergency room is often the starting point for a series of undesirable results.

The project that the New York State Office of Mental Health (OMH) worked on with CTG was designed to address this issue through the development of a computer-assisted decision model to support psychiatric assessments in emergency rooms. The model was developed with the assistance of an expert panel representing both practitioners and consumers of mental health services.

This report discusses the decision support model and software developed to support the practitioner in gathering and considering all information relevant to an admissions decision.

The goal of the Austrian Federal Budgeting and Bookkeeping System project was to redesign and integrate the electronic workflow of the federal government’s budget and bookkeeping processes. The strategy they chose was to implement a single Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) software standard throughout the federal government, along with the adoption of necessary legal authority.

The goal of the Austrian Federal Budgeting and Bookkeeping System project was to redesign and integrate the electronic workflow of the federal government’s budget and bookkeeping processes. The strategy they chose was to implement a single Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) software standard throughout the federal government, along with the adoption of necessary legal authority.

The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania’s Integrated Enterprise System Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) software implementation put in place the technical infrastructure and enterprise standards for core government administrative functions with improved public value.

The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania’s Integrated Enterprise System Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) software implementation put in place the technical infrastructure and enterprise standards for core government administrative functions with improved public value.

The Government of Israel’s Merkava Project is an effort to restructure the financial, logistics, and human resource components of government-wide administration into an integrated Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system. Merkava is also part of a comprehensive eGovernment initiative that includes five layers of new technologies and operational systems for enhanced internal operations and improved benefits and services to citizens.

The Government of Israel’s Merkava Project is an effort to restructure the financial, logistics, and human resource components of government-wide administration into an integrated Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system. Merkava is also part of a comprehensive eGovernment initiative that includes five layers of new technologies and operational systems for enhanced internal operations and improved benefits and services to citizens.

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are used by government, researchers, and businesses to support a wide range of activities. This article documents the implementation of an Internet-based GIS Clearinghouse in New York State, and highlights the role of the State Library as a critical implementer and value-added facilitator.

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are used by government, researchers and businesses in a wide range of domains including economic development, environmental management, education, health, human services, infrastructure management, and disaster response. Most experts agree that the most expensive part of a GIS program is the creation of spatial data. Some estimate that as much as 80 percent of the cost of any application is attributable to the expenses of acquiring and geo-coding information (Thapa and Bosler, 1992). Often the information needs of different GIS applications overlap and data created by one organization can be used by others. Data sharing can therefore help reduce costs of GIS application development and yield considerable benefits and efficiencies.

To achieve this purpose, the State of New York has implemented a GIS Coordination Program which features an Internet-based GIS Clearinghouse operated by the New York State Library (Dawes and Eglene, 1998). In this program, the Library acts as a critical implementer and value-added facilitator of an important new state information policy that has influence over spatial data development, exchange, and use at all levels of government and in the private and not-for-profit sectors. The Clearinghouse provides the conceptual framework and operational platform for a fully functioning data cooperative which is the heart of the New York State GIS Data Sharing Policy. The Library-based Clearinghouse has become the essential portal to many newly identified information resources. It organizes the data descriptions, provides a publicly available and easy-to-use means of access, promotes sharing, points the way to education and other services, and generally makes possible the vision of a living data resource.

In the fall of 2002, the Center for Technology in Government (CTG) at the University at Albany conducted current practice research to identify and examine existing government to government (G2G) portal projects.

In the fall of 2002, the Center for Technology in Government (CTG) at the University at Albany conducted current practice research to identify and examine existing government to government (G2G) portal projects. The purpose of this research was to determine if single sign-on intergovernmental portals, that channel business functions across programmatic areas and levels of government, exist in New York State or in other states. And, if they do exist, what are the policy, management, technological, financial, and other factors that influenced their development. Further, this research was to help inform the development of an intergovernmental prototype project at CTG.

Developing the New York State (NYS) Geographic Information System (GIS) Clearinghouse prototype required the adoption of standards and an effective search mechanism. This report presents how these were implemented in the NYS GIS Clearinghouse project.

The NYS Department of Environmental Conservation initiated the NYS Spatial Data Clearinghouse project, and the Center for Technology in Government directed the development of the GIS Clearinghouse prototype. As many as 450 state and county government officials as well as ten corporate partners cooperated in the design and implementation of the online clearinghouse of meta data and spatial data sets. The prototype NYS Clearinghouse provides a mechanism for potential users of NYS spatial data to determine whether data sets they need are already available or under development.

This technical report outlines the development of the prototype, the adoption of the Federal Geographic Data Committee’s meta data content standard, and the search mechanism used for retrieving data. The report also documents hardware and software choices made for implementation of the World Wide Web site.

With the hope of changing the lives of youth in foster care, in 1999 the U.S. Congress enacted the Foster Care Independence Act, also known as the Chaffee Independent Living Act (Act). The Act provided $140 million in block grants to states to support youths’ transitions to independent living and required the Federal Administration for Children and Families (ACF) to develop a national data collection and reporting system. The system, known as the National Youth in Transition Database (NYTD), seeks to track outcomes of youth receiving independent living services and to trace certain youth outcomes over time, even as they age out of the foster care system.

Washington State’s investment in digital archiving for government records provides a highly focused and successful example of pursuing public value through information technology.

Washington State’s investment in digital archiving for government records provides a highly focused and successful example of pursuing public value through information technology.

This report describes the results of research that tested the feasibility of using the Web to deliver services to citizens and conduct business among government agencies.

The World Wide Web has become an increasingly important way for people and organizations to communicate. The Internet Technology Testbed project examined the value of the Web for information seekers and information providers. CTG tested the feasibility of using the Web to deliver government services to citizens and conduct business among government agencies. The project team included government, academic, and corporate partners who together conducted a wide range of reviews and experiments within four service areas: information dissemination, business applications, group collaboration, and education and training. This project report describes the results of the research and includes case studies that show how the Web can be used for a national employment database, a Web-based purchasing system, online group collaboration meetings, and university coursework.

In addition to the full report, you can also download an Overview in pdf.

The XML Toolkit
Mon, 17 Apr 2006 (Online Resource)
The XML Toolkit is a Web site product of CTG's Web Site Management Using XML: A Testbed Project, which served to assist New York State agencies in examining the benefits as well as the challenges of Web site management using the emerging technology of XML. It contains a library of XML resources and is intended to grow over time and benefit from the contributions of the online community.

The XML Toolkit is a Web site product of CTG's Web Site Management Using XML: A Testbed Project, which served to assist New York State agencies in examining the benefits as well as the challenges of Web site management using the emerging technology of XML. It contains a library of XML resources and is intended to grow over time and benefit from the contributions of the online community.

This report presents the findings of a reconnaissance study on the use of parcel data in New York State. It documents the current and potential uses of parcel data, its value to many different kinds of organizations, and the typical flow of data across government and non-governmental boundaries.

This report presents the findings of a reconnaissance study on the use of parcel data in New York State. It documents the current and potential uses of parcel data, its value to many different kinds of organizations, and the typical flow of data across government and non-governmental boundaries.

Many of the new directions and developments on the Web have a basis in XML, which is becoming a critical technology for all types of information services. The features of XML emphasized in this Executive Briefing—open standard, reusability, technologically neutral—make it an ideal strategy for preparing for the future, while achieving efficiencies today.

Many of the new directions and developments on the Web have a basis in XML, which is becoming a critical technology for all types of information services. The features of XML emphasized in this Executive Briefing—open standard, reusability, technologically neutral—make it an ideal strategy for preparing for the future, while achieving efficiencies today.

Despite the clear advantages of XML, government confronts many obstacles to the adoption and implementation of XML-based Web site management. By using the guide, government agencies can gain new insights into how they can benefit from XML and develop strategies to address the technical and organizational issues to get started.

As government Web sites grow in size and complexity, it is important for agencies to develop sounder approaches to Web site management and publication processes. Poor public image, prohibitive maintenance costs, lack of consistency, and limited capacity to provide multiple formats are just some of the problems that many government Web sites are already facing or will face in the near future. The future of e-government will depend in part on the ability of governments to manage their Web sites in a more effective and efficient way to deliver value to citizens.

The Getting Started with XML guide is based on CTG’s own experience converting its Web site to XML, along with the experiences of five New York State agencies who participated in CTG’s XML Testbed. The research gathered from the Testbed contributed to a greater awareness of how XML can be used for Web site management in government settings.

This report is based on the lessons learned from CTG’s XML Testbed. The success of the Testbed rested on the enthusiastic participation of five New York State (NYS) agencies who committed to extensive hours of workshops, training, and prototype development. CTG extends its thanks to the NYS Department of Civil Service, NYS Division of Housing and Community Renewal, NYS Higher Education Services Corporation, NYS Office for the Prevention of Domestic Violence, and the NYS Office of Cultural Education, State Education Department. The Testbed was undertaken in partnership with the Governor’s Office of Employee Relations (GOER), the Office of the Chief Information Officer (OCIO), and the Office for Technology (OFT).

This report is based on the lessons learned from CTG’s XML Testbed. The success of the Testbed rested on the enthusiastic participation of five New York State (NYS) agencies who committed to extensive hours of workshops, training, and prototype development. CTG extends its thanks to the NYS Department of Civil Service, NYS Division of Housing and Community Renewal, NYS Higher Education Services Corporation, NYS Office for the Prevention of Domestic Violence, and the NYS Office of Cultural Education, State Education Department. The Testbed was undertaken in partnership with the Governor’s Office of Employee Relations (GOER), the Office of the Chief Information Officer (OCIO), and the Office for Technology (OFT).

The telephone is the means by which most people deal with the government. This report presents the results of a project that developed a prototype voice response system for the NYS Office of Regulatory and Management Assistance.

Each year, more than 33,000 people receive business permit assistance over the phone from the Office of Regulatory and Management Assistance (ORMA), now called the Governor's Office of Regulatory Reform. To answer the variety of questions posed by callers, Permit Coordinators rely on a database describing nearly 1,200 permits issued by more than 40 different New York State agencies.

This report presents the results of a project that developed a prototype voice response system that would use more sophisticated voice response technology to meet the needs of its customers. The project assessed technical feasibility, cost-effectiveness, business process, and customer service implications of fitting the system into existing operations.

A multitude of private and public institutions are now using e-commerce to deliver products and services to customers and clients. For many of these organizations, jumping into the world of e-commerce means they must link legacy systems and their attached databases to new Web-based applications and distributed databases. The ramifications of this process are examined in this report.

E-commerce, which involves linking legacy systems and their attached databases to new Web-based applications and distributed databases, is emerging as a key way for private and public sector organizations to deliver products and services to their customers and constituents. This research paper examines the technical and business ramifications of linking legacy systems, which traditionally have a low degree of connectivity, to the Web. It concludes that the high demand for e-commerce requires a more organized and structured method for developing Web-based applications.

Every government function depends on information, and each function has a set of policies behind it. This report, which summarizes the third seminar in the Using Information in Government Seminar Series, addresses the use of government information and the policies that govern that use.

The Center for Technology in Government (CTG), through the Using Information in Government (UIG) Program, has worked for more than a year with New York State agency project teams and partners from the public, private, and academic sectors to identify benefits and strategies for integrating and using information for program planning, evaluation, and decision making. The policy, management, and technology issues identified through our work with the agency teams were shared with the public in a series of seminars focused on increasing the value of existing information to government programs. This report summarizes the presentations given at the third session of the Using Information in Government Seminar Series, "What Rules Govern the Use of Information?" which was held on October 5, 1999 at the University at Albany.

Government faces many challenges that can be addressed more successfully when information is shared across organizational boundaries. Initiatives that depend on these kinds of information sharing are typically complex, difficult, and prone to failure. They are more likely to succeed when they include a comprehensive and systematic assessment of both organizational and technical information sharing capabilities.

Government faces many challenges that can be addressed more successfully when information is shared across organizational boundaries. These challenges differ widely in scope and complexity. One may involve linking the different databases and case management processes in a single human services agency where organizational units operate under one executive leader, working toward a common goal. Another challenge may involve enterprise-level initiatives, such as a statewide crime communications network, consisting of many different agencies at several levels of government engaged in diverse but overlapping business processes using similar, if not identical, information. Some challenges, such as emergency response, are so extensive that they require information sharing and work processes that cross the boundaries of the public, private, and nonprofit sectors.

Initiatives that depend on these kinds of information sharing are typically complex, difficult, and prone to failure. They are more likely to succeed when they include a comprehensive and systematic assessment of both organizational and technical information sharing capabilities. Such an assessment identifies the strengths and weaknesses of all participants, points out risks and risk mitigation strategies, and therefore leads to better planning and execution of cross-boundary programs and services.

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