(1) Expenditure data from: DG Information Society, European Commission; http://ec.europa.eu/idabc/en/ document/4336/5860; China: CCID Advisory (2005, May) http://www.ccidadvisory.com/ report_details.php?r_serial=229; India: Public Sector Technology and Management (2004, Jul 12) http:// www.pstm.net/article/index.php?articleid=236; U.S. Office of Management and Budget Web site: http:// www.whitehouse.gov/omb/egov/g-9-budget_highglights.html; Datamonitor. (2005, Jun). IT opportunities in state and local government: Five-year outlook for vendors. New York: Datamonitor.
http://www.datamonitor.com/~3d016a3bb9db4c6cb608be617baf36f5~/Products/Free/Report/DMTC1150/ 010DMTC1150.pdf; also http://zdnetasia.com/news/business/0,39044229,39371070,00.htm
(2) Matthew Weigelt, fiSenate committee questions e-gov ROI.fl FCW (July 17, 2006), http://www.fcw.com/ article95291-07-17-06-Web&newsletter%3Dyes
(3) View and download copies of the white paper and case study reports at www.ctg.albany.edu/projects/proi.
(4) This terminology is consistent with recent work on assessing government IT investment. See for example: Center for Digital Government, Prove IT: The Disciplines of Harvesting Value from Public Sector Information Technology, 2006. (www.centerdigitalgovernment.com); and eGovernment Economics Project (eGEP): Measurement Framework Final Version. Prepared for the eGovernment Unit, DG Information Society and Media, European Commission, by Christiano Codagnone (RSO SPA) and Paulo Boccardelli (Luiss Manage- ment), May, 2006.
(5) The Toxic Release Inventory is a publicly available data base maintained by the US Environmental Protection Agency that contains information on toxic chemical releases and other waste management activities reported annually by certain covered industry groups as well as federal facilities (http:// www.epa.gov/tri/).
(6) These are taken from the Business Reference Model document, which contains considerable detail on the definitions and details of these components (http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/egov/documents/CRM.PDF).
(7) See the European Interoperability Framework for Pan-European eGovernment Services, http:// europa.eu.int/scadplus/leg/en/lvb/l24226b.htm; The UK eGovernment Interoperability Framework, http:// www.govtalk.gov.uk/documents/eGIF%20v6_1(1).pdf; Malaysian Government Interoperability Framework (MyGIF), http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/APCITY/UNPAN016393.pdf;
Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSARG) Interoperability Framework, http:// www.bilgitoplumu.gov.tr/kdep/34/hongkongif_v1_0.pdf.
(8) The NASCIO Enterprise Architecture materials are listed at http://www.nascio.org/publications/index.cfm. The Athena Project reports are available at http://www.athena-ip.org.
(9) The Zachman Institute for Framework Advancement. http://www.zifa.com/
(10) See, for example, polling results at Zogby International (http://www.zogby.com/index.cfm), or The Pew Research Center for People and the Press (http://people-press.org/).
(11) Additional information and suggestions for conducting stakeholder analyses can be found in these sources:
http://www.ittoolkit.com/workbooks/qt_stake.pdf; http://www.stsc.hill.af.mil/crosstalk/2000/12/smith.html; http://www.boxesandarrows.com/view/understanding_organizational_stakeholders_for_design_success; http://www.ctg.albany.edu/publications/guides/smartit2?chapter=11§ion=5; http://www.ctg.albany.edu/ publications/guides/and_justice_for_all?chapter=8§ion=2
(12) Overseas Development Administration, Guidance Note on How to Do Stakeholder Analysis of Aid Projects and Programmes, Social Development Department, July 1995.
(13) More information on these data types and analysis methods can be found in social science research method texts. See, for example, Earl Babbie, The Practice of Social Research, Tenth Ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 2004.
(14) Stephen Burd. "Education Department Pulls the Plug on Novel Way to Deliver Financial Aid." Chronicle of Higher Education. Vol 46, No. 29 (March 24, 2000).
(15) See US Federal CIO Council Best Practices Committee. VMM How-To-Guide. http://www.cio.gov/docu- ments/ValueMeasuring_Methodology_HowToGuide_Oct_2002.pdf
(16) Accenture Public Service Value (PSV) Model, http://www.accenture.com/Global/Services/By_Industry/ Government/PublicGovernment.htm
(17) A Framework for Approaches to SROI Analysis. http://www.redf.org/
(18) View and download copies of the white paper and case study reports at www.ctg.albany.edu/projects/proi.